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天津卷2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语真题含试卷分析答题技巧详细信息
宜城教育资源网www.ychedu.com天津卷2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语真题含试卷分析答题技巧绝密★启用前2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)英语笔试本试卷分为第I卷(选择题)和第Ⅱ卷(非选择题)两部分,共130分,考试用时100分钟。第l卷1至10页,第Ⅱ卷11至12页。答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考号填写在答题卡上,并在规定位置粘贴考试用条形码。答卷时,考生务必将答案涂写在答题卡上,答在试卷上的无效。考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。祝各位考生考试顺利!第I卷注意事项:1.每小题选出答案后,用铅笔将答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号2.本卷共55小题,共95分。第一部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分)第一节;单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。例:Standoverthere_____________you'llbeabletoseeitbetter.A.orB.andC.butD.while答案是B。1.---Iguessyouwanttogoplaytennis.---__________.That'sexactlywhatIwasthinkingtoo.A.Ididn'tgetit B.It'suptoyouC.Youneverknow D.Youreadmymind【答案】D【解析】【详解】考查情景交际。句意:---我猜你想去打网球。---你猜透了我的心思。那就是我正在想着的事情。从回答的后半句可知,听话人同意说话人的意思。而A(不明白,不认同某人的说法)、B(决于你)和C(很难说,不可预知)都不符合语境。"youreadmymind"意为你知我心,符合语境,故选D。2.I__________tosendPeteragifttocongratulatehimonhismarriage,butIcouldn'tmanageit.A.hadhoped B.amhopingC.havehoped D.wouldhope【答案】A【解析】【详解】考查过去完成时。句意:我本来计划在Peter结婚时送他一个礼物的,可是我没有做到。第二个分句中"couldn't"用的是一般过去时,它之前的动作用过去完成时。故选A。3.Astudyshowsthestudentswhoareengagedinafter-schoolactivitiesarehappierthan_________whoarenot.A.ones B.thoseC.these D.them【答案】B【解析】【详解】考查代词。句意:一项研究表明,参加课外活动的学生比不参加课外活动的学生更开心。空格处代词与thestudents是对应关系,可以用theones或者those替代。"them"指代的是前边提到的复数名词,不能与thestudents形成对应关系。"these"一般不用定语从句修饰。故选B。4.____________tothinkcriticallyisanimportantskilltoday'schildrenwillneedforthefuture.A.Learn B.LearnedC.Learning D.Havinglearned【答案】C【解析】【详解】考查动名词。句意:学会批判性思维是当代小孩未来所必需的重要技能。句子缺少主语成分,而过去分词、动词都不可以做主语。此处用动名词做主语,故选C。5.___________alltheproblems,severaloftheplayersproducedexcellentperformances.A.Accordingto B.InsteadofC.Inadditionto D.Inspiteof【答案】D【解析】【详解】考查介词词组。句意:尽管存在所有这些问题,几个运动员还是表现很好。A.accordingto据(…所说);按(…所报道);B.insteadof代替,作为…的替换;C.inadditionto另外,加之,除…之外;D.inspiteof尽管,不管。故选D。6.---Mysongotafullscholarshiptohisdreamuniversity!----Wow,___________!What'shegoingtostudy?A.goodforhim B.goforitC.whatacoincidence D.allthebest【答案】A【解析】【详解】本题考查情景对话。句意:--我的儿子得了他梦想大学的全额奖学金。--噢,对他有好处!他打算学习什么呢?goodforhim"对他有好处";goforit"努力争取";whatacoincidence"多么巧合";allthebest"祝一切顺利(祝酒告别时说)"。故选A。7.Wecanobservethatartificialintelligencehasalreadymadea(n)___________onourlivesinmanyways.A.statement B.impactC.impression D.judgment【答案】B【解析】【详解】本题考查名词词义辨析。句意:我们能够看到人工智能在许多方面已经对我们的生活产生了强烈的影响。statement"陈述说明";impact"强烈的影响,冲击力";impression"印象,感想";judgement"判断力判断"。故选B。8.Amy,aswellasherbrothers,____________awarmwelcomewhenreturningtothevillagelastweek.A.isgiven B.aregivenC.wasgiven D.weregiven【答案】C【解析】【详解】本题考查时态和语态。句意:艾米和他的兄弟们当上周回到村里时,受到了热烈的欢迎。根据lastweek可知应用过去时,排除选项A和B。aswellas连接并列主语,谓语动词就前原则。这句话真正的主语是Amy,她受到热烈欢迎,所以用过去时的被动。故选C。9.Kateheardaman'svoiceinthebackground,butshecouldn't___________whathewassaying.A.setaside B.takebackC.makeout D.keepoff【答案】C【解析】【详解】本题考查动词词组辨析。句意:凯特听到背景中有一个男人的声音,但她听不清他在说什么。setaside"存储,留出";takeback"收回,拿回";makeout"辨认出,理解,了解";keepoff"(使)避开"。故选C。10.Mostcollegesnowofferfirst-yearstudentsacoursespecially___________tohelpthemsucceedacademicallyandpersonally.A.designed B.designingC.todesign D.beingdesigned【答案】A【解析】【详解】本题考查非谓语动词。acourse和design之间是动宾关系,所以用过去分词。故选A。句意:现在大多数大学都为一年级学生开设了一门课程,专门帮助他们在学业和个人方面取得成功。11.Theirchildisatthestage__________shecansayindividualwordsbutnotfullsentences.A.why B.whereC.which D.what【答案】B【解析】【详解】考查定语从句。句意:他们的孩子正处于能说单个单词而不能说完整句子的阶段。句中shecansayindividualwordsbutnotfullsentences是一个定语从句,先行词是thestage,关系词在定语从句中作地点状语,用关系副词where,故选B。12.Theprofessorwarnedtiestudentsthatonnoaccount_____________usemobilephonesinhisclass.A.shouldthey B.theyshouldC.darethey D.theydare【答案】A【解析】【详解】考查部分倒装。句意:这位教授警告学生们,在他的课堂上,决不应该使用手机。onnoaccount决不,否定词放在句首,句子使用部分倒装,应该做shoulddo,敢于做daredo,根据句意表示"应该",故选A。13.Tomissoindependentthatheneveraskshisparents'opinion_________hewantstheirsupport.A.since B.onceC.unless D.after【答案】C【解析】【详解】考查连词辨析。句意:汤姆是如此独立,以至于他从来不征求父母的意见,除非他想得到他们的支持。since因为;once一旦;unless除非;after在……之后,根据题意,故选C。14.Theworkerswerenotbetterorganized,otherwisethey____________thetaskinhalfthetime.A.accomplished B.hadaccomplishedC.wouldaccomplish D.wouldhaveaccomplished【答案】D【解析】【详解】考查虚拟语气。句意:工人们没有被更好的组织起来,否则他们用一半的时间就能完成任务。根据上句theworkerswerenotbetterorganized可知,这是对过去事情的虚拟。与过去事实相反的假设。其句子结构为:从句:If+主语+过去完成时+其他,主句:主语+should(would,could,might)+现在完成时+其他,故选D。15.Adog'seatinghabitrequiresregulartrainingbeforeitis___________established.A.properly B.widelyC.originally D.temporarily【答案】A【解析】【详解】考查副词辨析。句意:在狗的饮食习惯被正确地建立之前,需要定期的训练。properly正确地;widely广泛地;originally最初;temporarily临时地,根据题意,故选A。第二节:完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从16~35各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。Iwasreadytopayformybananasatthegroceryonenight,whenfearseizedme.Mywalletwasgone.IcouldonlyhaveleftitontheG9bus,whichwasnowspeedinginthedarktosome______16______station.The____17____momentwasquicklyfollowedbymentalmath.Howmuchtimeandmoneywoulditcosttoreplacethe_____18_____ofthatlittlewallet?Thecreditcards,thedriver'slicense,thecash,alllosttothebus.Twohourslater,backatmyhouse,Iheardaknockonthedoor.Myhusband_____19_____itwhileIwasonthephoneinthediningroom."DoesJenniferlivehere?"Iheardaladysay.Inmyhusband'shandwasmywallet,withnotapenny_____20_____.SheleftbeforeIcould____21____makeittothedoortooffermythanks.Aftersharingthestoryonline,Iheardfromsomeone,who____22____theladyasErinSmith.Without___23___,Icalledtothankher.Shesaidshe____24____mywalletonabusseat.She_____25_____thatgoingtoastranger'shousewasa____26____move,butshedecidedtotakethechance."IfIwereinthat____27____Iwouldwantsomeonetotrytofindme,"shesaid.Thisonestrangerrespondedbeautifullytomysmall____28____,butsheactuallywasn'ttheonlyone.RightafterErin____29____mywalletonthebus,shepostedapictureofmydriver'slicensetoanonlineforum(论坛),tryingtosee____30____anyoneknewme.NosoonerdidsheleavemydoorstepthanIhademailsfromtwowomenwhosekidsgotomyson'snurseryandwhorecognizedmyface.I'venever____31____wordswiththosemomsbeyondsmalltall,buttheywantedtohelp.Ireadthatpeoplearemoredividedthanever,butthat'snothowthepeopleI_____32_____tendtoact.___33___,Ifeelblessedsomeonehadwantedtohelpastranger.Erinhadgone____34____whatalmostanyonewouldhavedone,findingmyhouseonabitterlycoldnight,andforthatIwasextremely____35____.16.A.accessible B.hidden C.unknown D.convenient17.A.face-saving B.brain-washing C.eye-catching D.heart-stopping18.A.parts B.contents C.details D.ingredients19.A.ignored B.answered C.examined D.interrupted20.A.missing B.returned C.remaining D.abandoned21.A.still B.ever C.yet D.even22.A.selected B.appointed C.identified D.defined23.A.delay B.alarm C.regret D.invitation24.A.moved B.placed C.opened D.spotted25.A.disagreed B.complained C.calculated D.recommended26.A.selfless B.risky C.slow D.personal27.A.site B.direction C.situation D.atmosphere28.A.crisis B.danger C.threat D.failure29.A.gotridof B.madeuseof C.hadcontrolof D.tookpossessionof30.A.if B.where C.how D.when31.A.recalled B.exchanged C.repeated D.whispered32.A.encounter B.follow C.consult D.accompany33.A.Goingaway B.Turningaround C.Lookingback? D.Comingalong34.A.into B.against C.over D.beyond35.A.longing B.enthusiastic C.concerned D.grateful【答案】16.C17.D18.B19.B20.A21.D22.C23.A24.D25.C26.B27.C28.A29.D30.A31.B32.A33.C34.D35.D【解析】这是一篇夹叙夹议类的文章。作者将钱包落在了公共汽车上,Erin捡到了作者的钱包,在寒冷的黑夜亲自登门归还钱包。作者深受感动。文章叙述了事情的来龙去脉和作者的感受。【16题详解】根据前文的"fearseizedme.Mywalletwasgone."可以推知,作者将钱包落在了公共汽车上,而汽车正在开往某个作者未知的地方,这使得找回钱包的希望渺茫,因此作者心生"恐惧"。故C选项(unknown)切题。【17题详解】根据上一段中的"fearseizedme"可以推知,作者在发现丢了钱包之后的第一感觉是"害怕"。之后,作者开始在内心计算找回钱包里的那些东西所需要的时间和钱数。故该空应和fear表达的意思相近,D选项(heart-stopping)切题:令人心跳停止的,惊心动魄的。【18题详解】该空指下文中提到的"thecreditcards,thedriver'slicense,thecash",这些都是钱包里装的东西。故选B(content):所含之物,所容纳之物。【19题详解】两小时后有人敲门,丈夫去应门。B选项(answer)切题:应(门);接(电话);应答。【20题详解】结合下文的陈述可知,那位女士捡到了作者的钱包,她拾金不昧,将钱包完璧归赵。由此可以推知,该处指"钱包里的钱一分也没有丢失"。故A选项(missing)切题:不见的,丢失的。【21题详解】作者甚至还没有来得及到门口感谢那位女士,她就离开了。该空表示"甚至",故选D选项(even):甚至。【22题详解】在网上分享了这个故事之后,作者收到了某个人的来信,这个人确认了那位女士是ErinSmith。C选项(identify)切题:确认,认出,识别。【23题详解】找到了那位拾金不昧的女士,作者当然要"马上,毫不耽搁地"打电话去感谢对方。A选项(delay)切题:耽搁,延迟。【24题详解】作者将钱包落在了公共汽车上,Erin是在一个座位上发现了它。该空表示"发现",故选D选项(spot):发现,认出。【25题详解】根据文章最后一段中的"abitterlycoldnight"可知,这件事发生在一个寒冷的晚上。同时,Erin又不认识作者。由此推知,该句应指:Erin估计去一个陌生人的家是一个冒险的举动。C选项(calculate)正确:估算,估计,预料。【26题详解】根据下文中的转折词but可知,该句和shedecidedtotakethechance(她决定冒险)是转折关系。那么该句应指去一个陌生人家是一个冒险的举动。故B选项(risky)正确:冒险的。【27题详解】该句叙述的是Erin当时的想法:"如果我处在那种情况下(指丢了钱包这种情形),我希望有个人努力地找到我"。该空表示"情况,情形",故选C选项(situation):情况,情形。【28题详解】作者丢了钱包,对于作者来说,这是一个"危机,危难时刻"。故选A选项(crisis):危机,危难时刻。【29题详解】Erin捡到了作者的钱包,在归还作者之前,钱包在Erin的手里,Erin暂时"拥有,占有"作者的钱包。故D选项正确。takepossessionof意为"拥有,占有"。【30题详解】Erin把作者的驾照图片发到一个论坛里,想看看是否有人认识作者。该空表示"是否",故选A选项(if):是否。【31题详解】根据后面的转折词but可知,该句和后面一句(她们想帮忙)转折关系,由此推知,该句指:除了闲聊,作者和那两位妈妈从来没有说过话,即:从未和她们"交换过词语"。B选项(exchange)正确:交换,互换。【32题详解】作者曾经读到这样的说法:人们比以往更加四分五裂,即:人们不像以前那样团结,不像以前那样互相帮助了。但是,作者遇到的这些人的行为方式不是那样的。上文中提到的Erin,twomoms都是作者遇到的人。故A选项(encounter)正确:偶遇,遇到,邂逅。【33题详解】回顾发生的这件事,作者感到很幸运:有人想帮助一个陌生人。C选项(lookback)正确:回顾,追忆。【34题详解】根据倒数第二段中提到的"peoplearemoredivided"可以推知,一般人在捡到别人的钱包后,都不会像Erin那样亲自归还失主。因此该句指:Erin的所作所为远远超越了其他人的行为。该空表示"超过,超越",故选D选项(beyond):超过,超越。【35题详解】Erin在寒冷的黑夜亲自登门归还作者的钱包,作者对此非常感激。D选项(grateful)正确:感激的。第二部分:阅读理解(共20小题;每小题2.5分,满分50分)阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D国个选项中,选出最佳选项。AHistoryFairCompetitionUnderstandinghistoryisvitaltounderstandingourselvesasapeopleandasanation.Historyismuchmorethanthestudyofdustyoldobjectsandeventslongpast.Itisanessentialpartofwhowearetodayandwhowewillbecome.ThorntonfiddleSchoolHistoryFairCompetitionmakesunderstandinghistoryexciting,engaging,andfun!ThisYear'sThemeAllparticipantsmustaddresshowcommunicationortransportationtechnologyhaspromotedthequalityoflifeforAmericansthroughouthistory.Tomanypeople,technologymeanscomputers,hand-helddevices,orvehiclesthattraveltodistantplanets.However,technologyisalsotheapplicationofscientificknowledgetosolveaproblem,touchinglivesincountlessways.Individualsorgroupsmayenteroneofthefollowingcategories:·Performance·Documentary(纪实作品)·EssayWritingCategoryRequirementsPerformance:Adramaticpresentationofthetopicnomorethan10minuteslong.Ifspecialclothesareused,theyshouldtrulyrepresentagivenperiod.Documentary:Avisualpresentation(suchasavideo,slideshow,orcomputerproject)nomorethan10minuteslong.Adesktopcomputer,screen,projector,andloudspeakerswillbeavailable.StudentsmustprovidetheirpresentationsonCDsbeforeFriday,March23.EssayWriting:Anacademicpaperof2,000to2,500words.Noillustrations(图解)areallowed.Pleasedonotincludecovers.Alistofreferencesmustbeincluded.ImportantDatesJanuary5Submitatopicproposaltoyourhistoryteacher.Theteachermayrequireasecondproposalifthefirstisoff-topicorunclear.February5Submitafirstdraftofyouressay,performancescript(剧本),ordocumentaryhighlights.February19Acommitteeofteacherswillevaluatematerialsandgiveopinions.Studentsthenhaveanopportunitytoimprovetheirproducts.March9Submitafinaldraftofyouressay.March15PerformanceanddocumentarycommitteepreviewMarch24ThorntonMiddleSchoolHistoryFairCompetition7:00A.M-9:00A.MParticipantssigninginatthegym10:00A.M.-6:00PM.Competitionandjudges'review7:00P.M.Awardsceremonyandpicnic36.AccordingtoParagraph1,whatisthemajorgoalofunderstandinghistory?A.Topreservenationaltraditions.B.Toprepareforahistorycompetition.C.Tobetterknowthepresentandfuture.D.Tofurtherexplorehistoricalmysteries.37.Whatisthethemeofthisyear'scompetition?A.Technologyadvancesscience.B.Scienceinteractswithtechnology.C.Sciencehasmadethestudyofhistoryeasy.D.TechnologyhasimprovedthelifeofAmericans.38.Amongtheitemsprovidedbytheschoolforavisualpresentationare__________A.specialclothesandascreenB.adesktopcomputerandaCDC.aprojectorandspecialclothesD.adesktopcomputerandloudspeakers39.Whatwouldaparticipanthavetodowithanessayof1,500wordstomeetthecategoryrequirement?A.Includemoreinformationintheessay.B.Removethereferences.C.Provideacoverfortheessay.D.Explainthedetailswithillustrations.40.WhatwillthecommitteeofteachersdoonFebruary19?A.Previewperformancesanddocumentaries.B.Makecommentsonthematerials.C.Improvetheparticipant'sfirstdraft.D.Collectasecondproposalfromtheparticipant.【答案】36.C37.D38.D39.A40.B【解析】这是一篇应用文。短文介绍了桑顿中学举办的历史展览竞赛的相关信息。【36题详解】细节理解题。由第一段"Itisanessentialpartofwhowearetodayandwhowewillbecome"可知,历史告诉了今天我们是谁,将来我们要成为谁,它是我们重要的组成部分。所以根据第一段,了解历史的主要目地是更好地了解现在和未来。故C选项正确。【37题详解】细节理解题。由ThisYear'sTheme中的"AllparticipantsmustaddresshowcommunicationortransportaiontechnologyhaspromotedthequalityoflifeforAmercianthroughouthistory"可知,所有的参与者都必须要说明通信或运输技术如何在整个历史过程中如何提高了美国人的生活质量。所以今年竞赛的主题是:技术提高了美国人的生活。故D选项正确。【38题详解】细节理解题。由Documentary中的"Adesktopcomputer,screen,projector,andloudspeakerwillbeavailable"可知,将提供台式电脑、屏幕、投影仪和扬声器。所以学校提供的视觉展示设备包括台式电脑和扩音器。故D选项正确。【39题详解】细节理解题。本题采用排除法。由EssayWriting中的"Anacademicpaperof2,000to2,5000words"Noillustrationareallowed。Pleasedonotincludecovers.Alistofreferencesmustbeincluded"可知,要求一份2000至25000字的学术论文。不允许有插图。请不要包括封面。必须包括一份参考文献列表。所以通过排除法,可以看出B,C,D选项都被排除,故一个参与者需要在文章中列入更多的信息才能使一篇1500字的论文满足类别要求。故A选项正确。【40题详解】细节理解题。由ImportantDates中的"February19Acommitteeofteacherswillevaluatematerialsandgiveopinions"可知,2月19日,教师委员会将对材料进行评估并发表意见。所以在2月19日。教师委员会将对材料做出评论。故B选项正确。BImusthavealwaysknownreadingwasveryimportantbecausethefirstmemoriesIhaveasachilddealwithbooks.TherewasnotonenightthatIdon'tremembermomreadingmeastorybookbymybedside.Iwasextremelyinspiredbytheelegantwaythewordssounded.Ialwayswantedtoknowwhatmymomwasreading.Hearingmomsay,"Ican'tbelievewhat'sprintedinthenewspaperthismorning,"mademewanttograbitoutofherhandsandreaditmyself.Iwantedtobelikemymomandknowallofthethingssheknew.SoIcarriedaroundabook,andeachnight,justtobelikeher,Iwouldpretendtobereading.Thisishoweveryonelearnedtoread.Wewouldstartoffwithsentences,thenparagraphs,andthenstories.Itseemedanunendingjourney,butevenasasix-year-oldgirlIrealizedthatknowinghowtoreadcouldopenmanydoors.Whenmomsaid,"TheC-A-N-D-Yishiddenonthetopshelf,"Iknewwherethecandywas.Myprogressinreadingraisedmycuriosity,andIwantedtoknoweverything.Ioftenfoundmyselftellingmymomtodrivemoreslowly,sothatIcouldreadalloftheroadsignswepassed.Mostofmyreadingthroughprimary,middleandhighschoolwasfactualreading.Ireadforknowledge,andtomakeA'sonmytests.Occasionally,Iwouldreadanovelthatwasassigned,butIdidn'tenjoythistypeofreading.Ilikedfacts,thingsthatareconcrete.Ithoughtanythingabstractlefttoomuchroomforargument.Yet,nowthatI'mgrowingandtheworldIonceknewasbeingsosimpleisbecomingmorecomplex,Ifindmyselfneedingawaytoescape.Byopeninganovel,IcanleavebehindmyburdensandenterintoawonderfulandmysteriousworldwhereIamnowanewcharacter.IntheseworldsIcanbecomeanyone.Idon'thavetowritedownwhathappenedorwhattechniquetheauthorwasusingwhenheorshewrotethis.Ijustreadtorelax.We'retaughttoreadbecauseit'snecessaryformuchofhumanunderstanding.Readingisavitalpartofmylife.Readingsatisfiesmydesiretokeeplearning.AndI'vefoundthatthepossibilitiesthatliewithinbooksarelimitless.41.Whydidtheauthorwanttograbthenewspaperoutofmom'shands?A.Shewantedmomtoreadthenewstoher.B.Shewasanxioustoknowwhathadhappened.C.Shecouldn'twaittotearthenewspaperapart.D.Shecouldn'thelpbutstopmomfromreading.42.AccordingtoParagraph3,theauthor'sreadingofroadsignsindicates___________A.heruniquewaytolocateherselfB.hereagernesstodevelopherreadingabilityC.herefforttoremindmomtoobeytrafficrulesD.hergrowingdesiretoknowtheworldaroundher.43.Whatwastheauthor'sviewonfactualreading?A.Itwouldhelpherupdatetest-takingskills.B.Itwouldallowmuchroomforfreethinking.C.Itwouldprovidetrueandobjectiveinformation.D.Itwouldhelpshapearealisticandseriousattitudetolife.44.Theauthortakesnovelreadingasawayto___________.A.exploreafantasylandB.developapassionforleaningC.learnabouttheadultcommunityD.getawayfromaconfusingworld45.Whatcouldbethebesttitleforthepassage?A.TheMagicofReadingB.ThePleasureofReadingC.GrowingUpwithReadingD.ReadingMakesaFullMan【答案】41.B42.D43.C44.D45.C【解析】本文为夹叙夹议文,作者讲述了自己的读书经历和感悟。【41题详解】细节理解题。根据第二段主题句Ialwayswantedtoknowwhatmymomwasreading.和Hearingmomsay…mademewanttograbitoutofherhandsandreaditmyself可知,作者一直想知道妈妈在读什么。作者抢过妈妈读的报纸,因为作者自己迫切想看一看报纸上写的内容,故选B。【42题详解】推理判断题。根据第三段Myprogressinreadingraisedmycuriosity,andIwantedtoknoweverything,可以推断出,让妈妈开车开慢一点,他能够读出所有路标,正是作者在阅读方面的进步引起了他的好奇心,想要了解周围的一切,故选D。【43题详解】推理判断题。根据第四段第一句Mostofmyreadingthroughprimary,middleandhighschoolwasfactualreading.Ireadforknowledge,andtomakeA'sonmytest.可知,小学和中学阶段的阅读都是事实性阅读,读书是为了获取知识,考试得A。因此事实性阅读能够提供真实的客观的信息,故选C。【44题详解】细节理解题。根据第五段Byopeninganovel,IcanleavebehindmyburdensandenterintoawonderfulandmysteriousworldwhereIamnowanewcharacter.IntheseworldsIcanbecomeanyone.(打开一本小说,我可以摆脱我的负担,进入一个奇妙而神秘的世界,我现在是一个新的角色。在这个世界上,我可以成为任何人。)可知,阅读小说可以让作者避开复杂的现实而投入到小说中的世界中去,故选D。【45题详解】主旨大意题。根据上下文可知,作者以时间顺序回忆了自己的阅读经历和感悟,伴着阅读成长,故选项C符合题意。CHowdoesanecosystem(生态系统)work?Whatmakesthepopulationsofdifferentspeciesthewaytheyare?Whyaretheresomanyfliesandsofewwolves?Tofindananswer,scientistshavebuiltmathematicalmodelsoffoodwebs,notingwhoeatswhomandhowmucheachoneeats.Withsuchmodels,scientistshavefoundoutsomekeyprinciplesoperatinginfoodwebs.Mostfoodwebs,forinstance,consistofmanyweaklinksratherthanafewstrongones.Whenapredator(掠食动物)alwayseatshugenumbersofasingleprey(猎物),thetwospeciesarestronglylinked;whenapredatorlivesonvariousspecies,theyareweaklylinked.Foodwebsmaybedominatedbymanyweaklinksbecausethatarrangementismorestableoverthelongterm.Ifapredatorcaneatseveralspecies,itcansurvivetheextinction(灭绝)ofoneofthem.Andifapredatorcanmoveontoanotherspeciesthatiseasiertofindwhenapreyspeciesbecomesrare,theswitchallowstheoriginalpreytorecover.Theweaklinksmaythuskeepspeciesfromdrivingoneanothertoextinction.Mathematicalmodelshavealsorevealedthatfoodwebsmaybeunstable,wheresmallchangesoftoppredatorscanleadtobigeffectsthroughoutentireecosystems.Inthe1960s,scientistsproposedthatpredatorsatthetopofafoodwebhadasurprisingamountofcontroloverthesizeofpopulationsofotherspecies---includingspeciestheydidnotdirectlyattack.Andunplannedhumanactivitieshaveprovedtheideaoftop-downcontrolbytoppredatorstobetrue.Intheocean,wefishedfortoppredatorssuchascodonanindustrialscale,whileonland,wekilledofflargepredatorssuchaswolves.Theseactionshavegreatlyaffectedtheecologicalbalance.Scientistshavebuiltanearly-warningsystembasedonmathematicalmodels.Ideally,thesystemwouldtelluswhentoadapthumanactivitiesthatarepushinganecosystemtowardabreakdownorwouldevenallowustopullanecosystembackfromtheborderline.Preventioniskey,scientistssaysbecauseonceecosystemspasstheirtippingpoint(临界点),itisremarkablydifficultforthemtoreturn.46.Whathavescientistsdiscoveredwiththehelpofmathematicalmodelsoffoodwebs?A.Thelivinghabitsofspeciesinfoodwebs.B.Therulesgoverningfoodwebsoftheecosystems.C.Theapproachestostudyingthespeciesintheecosystems.D.Thedifferencesbetweenweakandstronglinksinfoodwebs.47.Astronglinkisfoundbetweentwospecieswhenapredator______A.hasawidefoodchoiceB.caneasilyfindnewpreyC.stickstoonepreyspeciesD.canquicklymovetoanotherplace48.Whatwillhappenifthepopulationsoftoppredatorsinafoodwebgreatlydecline?A.Thepreyspeciestheydirectlyattackwilldieout.B.Thespeciestheyindirectlyattackwillturnintotoppredators.C.Thelivingenvironmentofotherspecieswillremainunchanged.D.Thepopulationsofotherspecieswillexperienceunexpectedchanges.49.WhatconclusioncanbedrawnfromtheexamplesinParagraph4?A.Uncontrolledhumanactivitiesgreatlyupsetecosystems.B.Rapideconomicdevelopmentthreatensanimalhabitats.C.Speciesofcommercialvaluedominateotherspecies.D.Industrialactivitieshelpkeepfoodwebsstable.50.Howdoesanearly-warningsystemhelpusmaintaintheecologicalbalance?A.Bygettingillegalpracticesundercontrol.B.Bystoppingusfromkillinglargepredators.C.Bybringingthebroken-downecosystemsbacktonormal.D.Bysignalingtheurgentneedfortakingpreventiveaction.【答案】46.B47.C48.D49.A50.D【解析】这是一篇说明文。本文介绍了借助食物网的数学模型,科学家们发现了一些在食物网运营的关键原则。科学家们说;因为一个生态系统越过了它的临界点,它们很难再回来。该系统将告诉我们何时适应人类活动,这些活动正将生态系统推向崩溃,或者甚至允许我们将生态系统从边缘拉回来,预防是关键。【46题详解】细节理解题。根据第一段的Withsuchmodels,scientistshavefoundoutsomekeyprinciplesoperatinginfoodwebs.可知,借助食物网的数学模型,科学家们发现了食物网中的一些关键原则。故选B。【47题详解】细节理解题。根据第一段的Whenapredator(掠食动物)alwayseatshugenumbersofasingleprey(猎物),thetwospeciesarestronglylinked可知,当捕食者总是吃大量的单一猎物,这两个物种是紧密相连的。故选C。【48题详解】推理判断题。根据第二段的Inthe1960s,scientistsproposedthatpredatorsatthetopofafoodwebhad,asurprisingamountofcontroloverthesizeofpopulationsofotherspeciestheydidnotdirectlyattack可知,处于食物网顶端的食肉动物对它们没有直接攻击的其他物种的种群数量有着惊人的控制,由此可推断出,如果食物链顶级食肉动物的数量大大下降,其他物种的种群将经历意想不到的变化。故选D。【49题详解】推理判断题。根据第四段的Ideallythesystemwouldtelluswhentoadapthumanactivitiesthatarepushinganecosystemtowardabreakdownorwouldevenallowustopullanecosystembackfromtheborderline可知,人类过度的活动会将生态系统推向崩溃,由此可推断出,不受控制的人类活动极大地破坏了生态系统。故选A。【50题详解】细节理解题。根据最后一段的Scientistshavebuiltanearly-warmingsystembasedonmathematicalmodels.Ideallythesystemwouldtelluswhentoadapthumanactivitiesthatarepushinganecosystemtowardabreakdownorwouldevenallowustopullanecosystembackfromtheborderline.可知,早期变暖系统发出紧急需要采取预防行动的信号帮助我们维持生态平衡。故选D。DWouldyouBETonthefutureofthisman?Heis53yearsold.Mostofhisadultlifehasbeenalosingstruggleagainstdebtandmisfortune.Awarinjuryhasmadehislefthandstopfunctioning,andhehasoftenbeeninprison.Drivenbyheaven-knows-whatmotives,hedeterminestowriteabook.Thebookturnsouttobeonethathasappealedtotheworldformorethan350years.ThatformerprisonerwasCervantes,andthebookwasDonQuixote(《堂吉诃德》).Andthestoryposesaninterestingquestion:whydosomepeoplediscovernewvitalityandcreativitytotheendoftheirdays,whileothersgotoseedlongbefore?We'veallknownpeoplewhorunoutofsteambeforetheyreachlife'shalfwaymark.I'mnottalkingaboutthosewhofailtogettothetop.Wecan'tallgetthere.I'mtalkingaboutpeoplewhohavestoppedlearningongrowingbecausetheyhaveadoptedthefixedattitudesandopinionsthatalltoooftencomewithpassingyears.Mostofus,infact,progressivelynarrowthevarietyofourlives.Wesucceedinourfieldofspecializationandthenbecometrappedinit.Nothingsurprisesus.Weloseoursenseofwonder.But,ifwearewillingtolean,theopportunitiesareeverywhere.Thethingswelearninmaturityseldominvolveinformationandskills.Welearntobearwiththethingswecan'tchange.Welearntoavoidself-pity.Welearnthathowevermuchwetrytoplease,somepeoplearenevergoingtoloveus-anideathattroublesatfirstbutiseventuallyrelaxing.Withhighmotivationandenthusiasm,wecankeeponlearning.Thenwewillknowhowimportantitistohavemeaninginourlife.However,wecanachievemeaningonlyifwehavemadeacommitmenttosomethinglargerthanourownlittleegos(自我),whethertolovedones,tofellowhumans,towork,ortosomemoralconcept.Manyofusequate(视……等同于)"commitment"withsuch"caring"occupationsasteachingandnursing.Butdoinganyordinaryjobaswellasonecanisinitselfanadmirablecommitment.Peoplewhoworktowardsuchexcellencewhethertheyaredrivingatruck,orrunningastore-maketheworldbetterjustbybeingthekindofpeopletheyare.They'velearnedlife'smostvaluablelesson.51.ThepassagestartswiththestoryofCervantestoshowthat_________.A.lossoffreedomstimulatesone'screativityB.ageisnotabarriertoachievingone'sgoalC.miseryinspiresamantofightagainsthisfateD.disabilitycannotstopaman'spursuitofsuccess52.WhatdoestheunderlinedpartinParagraph3probablymean?A.Endone'sstruggleforliberty.B.Wasteone'senergytakingrisks.C.Misstheopportunitytosucceed.D.Losetheinteresttocontinuelearning.53.WhatcouldbeinferredfromParagraph4?A.Thosewhodaretotryoftengetthemselvestrapped.B.Thosewhotendtothinkbackcanhardlygoahead.C.Opportunityfavorsthosewithacuriousmind.D.Opportunityawaitsthosewithacautiousmind.54.WhatdoestheauthorintendtotellusinParagraph5?A.Atoughmancantoleratesuffering.B.Awisemancanlivewithoutself-pityC.Amanshouldtrytosatisfypeoplearoundhim.D.Amanshouldlearnsuitablewaystodealwithlife55.Whatistheauthor'spurposeinwritingthepassage?A.Toprovideguidanceonleadingameaningfuladultlife.B.Tostresstheneedofshoulderingresponsibilitiesatwork.C.Tostatetheimportanceofgeneratingmotivationforlearning.D.Tosuggestawayofpursuingexcellenceinourlifelongcareer.【答案】51.B52.D53.C54.D55.A【解析】本文属于议论文,讲述要成功,就需要不断的学习,这样的生活才会有意义。【51题详解】推理判断题。第一段讲述塞万提斯一生不幸,负债累累,因为战争受伤左手残疾,同时还身陷囹圄,在53岁的时候决定写书,最终写出成名作《唐吉柯德》,根据后文可知,所有的困境都没有阻挡他的成功,年龄也是如此,故选B。【52题详解】词义猜测题。根据第三段I'mtalkingaboutpeoplewhohavestoppedlearningongrowingbecausetheyhaveadoptedthefixedattitudesandopinionsthatalltoooftencomewithpassingyears.故可知,作者谈论的不是那些没有到达巅峰的人,而是谈论那些不再学习成长的人,故可知runoutofsteam可知,停止学习,故选D。【53题详解】推理判断题。根据第四段welosethesenseofwonder.But,ifwearewillingtolearn,theopportunitiesareeverywhere.可知,我们失去了好奇感,但是如果我们愿意学习,机会无处不在,故可知,机会总是留给那些好奇心的人,故选C。【54题详解】推理判断题。根据第五段welearntobearwiththethingswecan'tchange.Welearntoavoidself-pity.Welearnthathowevermuchwetrytoplease,somepeoplearenevergoingtoloveus-anideathattroublesatfirstbutiseventuallyrelaxing.可知,我们学会承受那些无法改变的事情,学会避免自怜,也学会了无论我们怎么去取悦别人,有些人是无法喜欢我们的,这个观点起初让我们苦恼,但是之后会让我们释怀,故可知,本段作者告诉我们要学会使用恰当的方式来对待生活,故选D。【55题详解】主旨大意题。本文讲述要成功,就需要不断的学习,这样的生活才会有意义,故本文作者的目的是为了指导我们过一个有意义的成年人生活,故选A。绝密☆启用前2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)英语笔试第Ⅱ卷注意事项:1.用黑色墨水的钢笔或签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。2.本卷共6小题,共35分。第三部分:写作第一节:阅读表达(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)阅读短文,按照题目要求用英语回答问题。HazeMabry,whohasworkedasaschoolkeeperforthirteenyears,walksintotheschoolbuildingeverydayandemptiesgarbagecans,wipesdownbathroomsandmopswetmessesinthehallways.LastFriday,afterhearrivedattheschool,insteadoffindinggarbagetocleanup,hefoundalmost800studentsliningthehallwayswithhandmadecards,blowingnoisemakersandsingingafull-throatedhappybirthdaytohim.Itwashis80th.Ashewalkedthelonghallway,somepoppedoutoflimetohughim.Theyhandedhimsomanycardsthattheyfilledseverallargeboxes.Touchedbytheirenthusiasticexpressionofaffection.Mabrythankedthemall."They'relikemychildren,"Mabrysaid.Onaregularday,studentsattheschoolsometimescomeuptohimtosaythey'renotfeelingwellorothertimestotellhimaboutsomethingthathappenedatbreak.Heknowsmostofthekidsattheschool,butcan'tnameeachone.Someofthemmakehimknowthem.LikeFaith,whooftenforgetsherbackpackinthecafeteria,andLucy,whojustwantsahug."Hewon'tbrag(夸耀)onhimself,butitdoesn'tmatterwhathe'sdoingorwhereheis,hewillalwaysstopwhathe'sdoingtotakecareofachildifthatchildishavingabadday.Ifachildapproacheshim,hewillpausetogivethatchildhisundividedattention.He'sthemostlovedoneinthisbuilding,"saidLoriGilreath,areadingteacher.Mabryworkscirclesaroundallthestudents,cleaningupmessesothersdon'twanttotouch.Hedoesn'texpectalot.Mabrysaidhehadn'tplannedtodomuchforhismilestonebirthday,sohewashappythestudentshadpreparedthesurprisecelebration.Overtheweekend,heworkedthroughthepilesofhandmadecardsathishouse.Onecardfromastudentstoodouttohim.Itread:"Mr.Haze,youaremysunshine."56.WhatisMabry'sdailyworkasaschoolkeeper?(nomorethan5words)57.HowdidthestudentscelebrateMabry'sbirthday?(nomorethan15words)58.WhatdoestheunderlinedwordinParagraph2probablymean?(1word)59.WhyisMabry'spresenceattheschoolimportant?(nomorethan10words)60.Whoisthe"sunshine"inyourlife?Pleaseexplain.(nomorethan20words)【答案】56.Cleaningthe(school)building.Or:Doing(the)cleaning.Or:Hecleansthe(school)building.Or:Hedoes(the)cleaning.57.Byliningthehallways,blowingnoisemakers,singingasong,handinghimcards,andhugginghimOr:Byliningthehallwayswith(handmade)cards,blowingnoisemakers,singingasong,andhugginghim.Or:Theylinedthehallways,blewnoisemakers,sangasong,handedhimcards,andhuggedhim.Or:Theylinedthehallwayswith(handmade)cards,blewnoisemakers,sangasong,andhuggedhim.58.Love.Or:Liking.Or:Fondness.59.(Because)heloves/caresabout(the)studentsandworkshard.Or:(Because)heloves(the)studentsandisdevotedtohiswork.Or:(Because)heiskind/caring/helpfultothestudents,andhard-working.Or:(Because)heisregardedasakind/warm-hearted/helpful/caringandhard-workingman.60.Myfather/mother.(Because)he/shelovesmeandencouragesmewhenI'mfaced/confrontedwithdifficulties.Or:Myteacher.(Because)he/shecaresaboutmeandpreparesmeformyfuturecareer.Or:Myfriend.(Because)he/shebringsmejoy/happinessandgivesmealotofcomfort/help/encouragement.【解析】本文为记叙文。文中记叙了一位清洁工Mabry,他的日常工作就是清扫学校大楼。Mabry爱学生,关心学生。学生们也尊敬他,喜欢他。在他80生日那天,学生们用自己的方式祝贺他的生日,表达了对Mabry的热爱。【56题详解】细节理解题。根据第一段"HazeMabry,whohasworksasaschoolkeeperforthirteenyears,walksintotheschoolbuildingeverydayandemptygarbagecans,wipesdownbathrooms,andmopswetmessesinthehallways."可知HazeMabry是一位清洁工,他的日常工作就是清扫学校大楼。因此本句的答案可为:Cleaningthe(school)building;Or:doing(the)cleaning;Or:Hecleansthe(school)building;Or:Hedoes(the)cleaning.【57题详解】细节理解题。根据第二段"LastFriday,...hefoundalmost800studentsliningthehallwayswithhandmadecards,blowingnoisemakersandsingingafull-throatedhappybirthdaytohim.和somepoppedoutoflinetohughim."可知,上个周五,他发现几乎有800名学生在走廊里排队,拿着手制卡片,吹口哨,为他唱了一首响亮的生日快乐歌,拥抱他。因此答案为:Byliningthehallways,blowingnoisemakers,singingasong,handinghimcards,andhugginghim.Or:Byliningthehallwayswith(handmade)cards,blowingnoisemakers,singingasong,andhugginghim.Or:Theylinedthehallways,blewnoisemakers,sangasong,handedhimcards,andhuggedhim.Or:Theylinedthehallwayswith(handmade)card,blewnoisemakers,sangasong,handedhimcards,andhuggedhim.【58题详解】猜测题意题。根据第二段学生们为Mabry庆祝生日的方式和划线词后的内容"Mabrythankedthemall,"以及"They'relikemychildren."可知Mabry爱学生,把学生当作自己的孩子。那么学生们也表达了他们对Mabry的热爱。因此Mabry被学生的爱所感动,故所以的"affection"相当于"Love",故填love。Or:liking.Or:Fondness.【59题详解】细节理解题。根据倒数第二段的内容"...hewillalwaysstopwhathe'sdoingtotakecareofachildifthatchildishavingabadday.Ifachildapproacheshim,hewillpausetogivethatboyhisundividedattention.He'sthemostlovedoneinthisbuilding."以及最后一段"Mabryworkscirclesaroundallthestudents,cleaningupmessesothersdon'twanttotouch.Hedoesn'texpectalot."可知,Mabry关心爱护孩子,帮助孩子,是一个善良、热心的人。一个不怕脏不怕累、勤奋工作的人。因此答案为:(Because)heloves/caresabout(the)studentsandworkshard.Or:(Because)helovesthestudentsanddevotedtohiswork.Or:(Because)heiskind/caring/helpingtothestudents,andhard-working.Or:(Because)heisregardedasakind/warm-hearted/helpful/caringandhard-workingman.60题详解】考查学生的观察综合表达能力。本题的题目:whoisthe"sunshine"inyourlife?"谁是你生活中的阳光?只要在生活或学习中帮助过你,关心你、爱护你的,鼓励你,安慰你的都可称为yoursunshine。因此答案可为:Myfather/mother.(Because)he/shelovesmeandencouragedmewhenI'mfaced/confrontedwithdifficulties.Or:Myteacher.(Because)he/shecaresaboutmeandpreparesmeformyfuturecareer.Or:Myfriend.(Because)he/shebringsmejoy/happinessandgivesmealotofcomfort/help/encouragement.第二节:书面表达(满分25分)61.假设你是晨光中学的李津,英国友好校将派教师来你校参加为期一周的暑期交流活动。活动期间,英方教师Chris将做一个有关西方艺术的讲座、现就讲座内容征求你校学生的意见。请根据以下提示给Chris写一封电子邮件:(1)你喜欢的讲座话题(从音乐、美术、舞蹈中任选其一);(2)选择该话题的原因及关于该话题你感兴趣的内容;(3)希望从中有何收获。注意:(1)词数不少于100:(2)可适当加入细节,使内容充实、行文连贯;(3)开头和结尾已给出、不计入总词数。DearChris,I'mLiJim,astudentatChenguangHighSchool._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Thankyouforyourtime.Yours,LiJin【答案】参考答案略【解析】【详解】本题解析略。 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天津卷2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语真题含试卷分析答题技巧

常见介词用法-介词短语做什么成分-介词短语的构成

助动词的分类和用法-基本助动词有哪些-助动词do和

过去完成进行时用法-过去完成进行时与过去完成时比

动名词用法-动名词的结构和形式-动名词与现在分词
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