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新目标九年级英语电子课本-新目标九年级英语知识点总结详细信息
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新目标九年级英语电子课本-新目标九年级英语知识点总结

快要告别寒假,快要告别长假,快要告别地震带给我们的食不安胃、睡不安寝的惨状,带着新的憧憬,我们又迎来了充满希望和挑战的新学年。
  新学年即将开始,对我们来说,有意义的不是沉浸在昨天的回忆中,而是更多地思考如何不断地完善和提高自己。新学年开始之际,我送给大家三句话:
  第一句话:认识自我,对自己说:我能行!
  在生活中,我们获得的每一滴成功,遭受的每一次挫折,似乎都要经过放大镜,进入父母、老师的心底。我们每一点进步,每一个成长,无不受到大家默默的关注和赞赏。面对这般关爱,我们能说:我不行吗?
  有人说:说你行,不行也行;说你不行,行也不行。这是一种信心上的心理暗示,会对我们的学习、生活产生重要的影响。我们每个人都是一个独特的生命个体,没有人能替代我们,我们应该勇敢地对自己说:我能行!这是心灵对生命的允诺,是我们前行的力量。
  第二句:锻炼自我,对自己说:让人们因我的存在而感到幸福!” 
  在我们的学习、生活中,肯定有快乐和烦恼的交织,肯定有喝彩与孤独的交响,肯定有理想与现实的交战。不以物喜,不以己悲理应成为我们现代人追求的境界。 与同学交往要讲信用,与别人交流要真诚,这些名言警句,理应时时吟诵,铭记在心,并努力践行。
  俗话说得好一辈子同学三辈子亲,如果说相逢是一首歌,相处就是一出铿锵激昂的交响乐,就让我们的师生、我们的校园、我们的花草树木、我们的板凳书桌,共同演奏这人生的伟大乐章!让我们大声说让人们因我的存在而感到幸福
  第三句话:提升自我,对自己说:真正的学习是自觉学习。” 
  伟大的教育家苏霍姆林斯基,用三十余年的躬亲实践,领悟出了一条极为朴素的真理,那就是真正的教育是自我教育。正如没有比人更高的山,没有比脚更长的路,路就在我们自己的脚下,命运就在我们自己的手中。所以,我想对同学们说:真正的学习是自觉学习。
  让我们自觉地用勤奋与奋斗来赢得希望与收获;用纪律与约束赢得理智与自由;用汗水与泪水赢得练达与成熟;用拼搏与超越赢得成功与辉煌。
  只有赢在起点,信心才能不断飞跃;只有笑到最后,生命才会光辉灿烂。

 

Unit 1

一、知识点

1.Check in : 在旅馆的登记入住。       Check out: 在旅馆结账离开。

2.By: ①通过…..方式(途径)。例:I learn English by listening to tapes.

②在…..旁边。例:by the window/the door

③乘坐交通工具 例:by bus/car

④在……之前,到……为止。例:by October10月前

⑤被      例:English is spoken by many people.

3.howwhat的区别:

 how通常对方式或程度提问,意思有:怎么样 如何,通常用来做状语、表语。

 what通常对动作的发出者或接受者提问,意思为 什么,通常做宾语,主语。

How is your summer holiday?  Its OK.(how表示程度 做表语)

How did you travel around the world?  I travel by air.

What do you learn at school?  I learn English, math and many other subjects.

   What…think of…?  How…like…?

   What…do with…?  How…deal with…?

   What…like about…? How…like…?

   What’s the weather like today? How’s the weather today?

   What to do? How to do it?

e.g. What do you think of this book?=How do you like this book?

   I don’t know what I should do with the matter.=I don’t know how I should deal with it.

   What do you like about China?=How do you like China?

   I don’t know what to do next step?=I don’t know how to do it next step?

What good / bad weather it is today!weather为不可数名词,其前不能加 a

What a fine / bad day it is today!   day为可数名词,其前要加 a        

4. aloud, loudloudly的用法 : 三个词都与"大声""响亮"有关。

   aloud是副词,重点在出声能让人听见,但声音不一定很大,

常用在读书或说话上。通常放在动词之后。aloud没有比较级形式。

: He read the story aloud to his son.他朗读那篇故事给他儿子听。

loud可作形容词或副词。用作副词时,常与speak, talk, laugh等动词连用,多用于比较级,须放在动词之后。如:

She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。

loudly是副词,loud同义,有时两者可替换使用,但往往

含有令人讨厌或打扰别人的意思,可位于动词之前或之后。如: 

He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public. 他不当众大声谈笑。

5. voice 指人的嗓音 也指鸟鸣。

  sound 指人可以听到的各种声音。

  noise 指噪音、吵闹声

6. find + 宾语 + 宾补(名词 形容词 介词短语 分词等)

  例:I find him friendly.         I found him working in the garden.

We found him in bed.       He found the window closed.

We found her honest.

7. 常见的系动词有:

①是:am is are  

②保持:keep stay   

转变:become get turn

……起来 feel look smell taste sound

8. get + 宾语+宾补(形容词 过去分词 动词不定式) 使某种情况发生

例:Get the shoes clean. 把鞋擦干净  

Get Mr. Green to come. 让格先生进来

I want to get my bike repaired. 我想去修自行车

You cant get him waiting. 你不能让他老等着

9. 动词不定式做定语

①与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系

The next train to arrive was from New York. He is always the first to come.

②与所修饰的名词构成动宾关系

I have nothing to say.              I need a pen to write with.

I need some paper to write on.       I don’t have a room to live in.

10. practice , fun 做名词为不可数名词       

11. add 补充说 又说

12. join 加入某团体 并成为其中一员    attend 出席参加会议或讲座

   join intake part in指参加到某项活动中去。

13.all both always以及every复合词与not连用构成部分否定。其完全否定为:all---none,   both---neither,  everything---nothing,     everybody---nobody.

14. be afraid of doing sth. / sth.害怕 be afraid of being alone

be afraid to do sth.害怕

be afraid that恐怕担心,表示委婉语气

15.either:①放在否定句末表示“也”           

②两者中的“任一”

eitheror…或者…或者.…引导主语部分,谓语动词按照就近原则

16.complete完成,是个较正式的词,后不能接动名词   

finish指日常事物的完成

17.a,an 与序数词连用表示“又一”,“再一”。

  例:Please give me a second apple.       There comes a fifth girl.

18.have trouble/difficult/problem (in) doing.. 干…..遇到麻烦,困难

19.unless  除非,如果不,等于“if not”本身就表示否定,引导条件状语从句,主句为将来时,条件状语从句用一般现在时表示将来。

  例:My baby sister doesnt cry unless shes hungry.

     =My baby sister doesn’t cry if she isn’t hungry.

Unless you take more care, youll have an accident.     

如果你不多加小心的话,你会出事的。

20.instead: adv. 代替,更换。    

   例:We have no coffee, would you like tea instead 

我们没有咖啡了,改喝茶好吗?

It will take days by car, so lets fly instead. 

开车去要好几天呢,咱们还是坐飞机吧。

Tom was ill, so I went instead.汤姆病了,所以换了我去。

instead of doing sth. 作为某人或某事物的替换

例:Lets play cards instead of watching TV. 

We sometimes eat rice instead of potatoes.

Give me the red one instead of the green one.

21.spoken 口头的,口语的。spoken English  口头英语     

speaking 讲话的,说某种语言的。Speaking skills讲英语的能力

22. 提建议的句子:

What/ how about +doing sth.?  如:What/ How about going shopping?

   Why don’t you + do sth.? 如:Why don’t you go shopping?

   Why not + do sth. ?      如:Why not go shopping?      

   Let’s + do sth.           如: Let’s go shopping

   Shall we/ I + do sth.?     如:Shall we/ I go shopping?

23. a lot 许多  常用于句末 如:I eat a lot. 我吃了许多。

24. too…to 而不能  常用的句型 too+adj./adv. + to do sth.

如:I’m too tired to say anything. 我太累了,什么都不想说。

25. not …at all 一点也不  根本不  如:

I like milk very much. I don’t like coffee at all.

我非常喜欢牛奶。我一点也不喜欢咖啡。

    not经常可以和助动词结合在一起,at all 则放在句尾

26.be / get excited about sth.=== be / get excited about doing sth.  

=== be excited to do sth. 感兴奋 如:

   I am / get excited about going to Beijing.===

   I am excited to go to Beijing. 我对去北京感到兴奋。

27. end up doing sth    终止做某事,结束做某事  如:

    The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。

    end up with sth.    以…结束 如:

    The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。

28. first of all 首先

.  to begin with 一开始

   later on 后来、随

29. also 也、而且(用于肯定句)常在句子的中间

    either 也(用于否定句)常在句末

    too  (用于肯定句)   常在句末=as well

30. make mistakes 犯错

   mistake sb. for …把……错认为……

   make mistakes (in) doing sth. 在干某事方面出错

   by mistake 错误地;由于搞错

   mistake---mistook----mistaken

如:I often make mistakes. 我经常犯错。

    I mistook him for his brother.我错把他认成了他的哥哥。

make a mistake 犯一个错误 如: I have made a mistake.

我已经犯了一个错误。

31. laugh at sb. 笑话;取笑(某人)

如:Don’t laugh at me!不要取笑我!

32. take notes 做笔记,做记录

33. enjoy doing sth . 喜欢做…乐意做… 如:

   She enjoys playing football. 她喜欢踢足球。

   enjoy oneself  过得愉快 如:He enjoyed himself. 他过得愉快。

34. native speaker 说本族语的人

35. one of +(the+ 形容词比较级)+名词复数形式  其中之一

如: She is one of the most popular teachers. 她是最受欢迎的教师之一。

36. It’s +形容词+(for sb. ) to do sth. (对于某人来说)做某事

   如:It’s difficult (for me ) to study English.对于我来说学习英语太难了。

    句中的it 是形式主语,真正的主语是to study English

37. practice doing 练习做某事   如:

   She often practice speaking English. 她经常练习说英语。

38. decide to do sth. 决定做某事 如:

   LiLei has decided to go to BeiJing . 李雷已经决定去北京。

39. deal with 处理 如:I dealt with a lot of problem.

40. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/ 某事

   如:Mother worried about his son just now. 妈妈刚才担心他的儿子。

41. be angry with sb. 对某人生气 如:

   I was angry with her. 我对她生气。

42. perhaps === maybe 也许

43. go by (时间) 过去 如: Two years went by. 两年过去了。

44. see sb. / sth. doing 看见某人正在做某事 强调正在发生

see sb. / sth. do    看见某人在做某事 如:

 如: She saw him drawing a picture in the classroom.她看见他正在教室里画画。

45. each other 彼此

46. regard… as … 看作为….  如:

 The boys regarded Anna as a fool. 这些男孩把安娜看成傻瓜。

47. too many 许多 修饰可数名词 如:too many girls

too much 许多 修饰不可数名词 如:too much milk

    much too 太  修饰形容词   如:much too beautiful

48. change… into… 将变为 

如:The magician changed the pen into a book. 这个魔术师将这本书变为一本书。

49. with the help of sb. == with one’s help 在某人的帮助下

   如:with the help of LiLei == with LiLei’s help 在李雷的帮助下

50. compare … to … 把相比 

如:Compare you to Anna, you are lucky.你和安娜相比,你是幸运的。

二、短语:

1.by making flashcards 通过做单词抽认卡    

2. askfor help 向某人求助

3.read aloud 朗读          

4.that way (=in that way) 通过那种方式

5.improve my speaking skills 提高我的会话技巧

6.for example (=for instance)例如

7.have fun 玩得高兴                    

8.have conversations with friends 与朋友对话

9.get excited 高兴,激动                

10.end up speaking in Chinese 以说汉语结束对话

11.do a survey about 做有关…的调查 

12.keep an English notebook 记英语笔记

13.spoken English (= oral English) 英语口语    

14.make mistakes  犯错误

15.get the pronunciation right 使发音准确     

16.practise speaking English 练习说英语     

17.first of all 首先      

18.begin with 以…开始

19.later on随后                           

20.in class在课堂上

21.laught at 嘲笑                        

22.take notes 记笔记

23.enjoy doing 喜欢干…                  

24.write down 写下,记下

25.look up (v + adv) 查找,查询           

26.native speakers 说本族话的人

27.make up 编造,虚构,化妆,打扮      

28.around the world 全世界

29.deal with 对待,处理,解决

30.worry about (be worried about) 担心,担忧

31.be angry with 生某人的气              

32.stay angry 生气

33.go by 消逝                            

34. regardas 把…当做…

35.complain about/of 抱怨      

36. changeinto 把…变成… = turn into

37.with the help of 在…的帮助下

38. compareto (with)  把…和…作比较

39.think of (think about) 想起,想到   

40.physical problems身体上的问题

41.break off 中断,突然终止           

42. notat all 根本不,全然不

三、句子

1.How do you study for a test? 你怎样为考试做准备?

2.I have learned a lot that way. 用那种方法,我已经学到了很多东西。

3.Its too hard to understand the voice. 听懂那些声音太难了。

4.Memorizing the words of pop songs also helped a little.

记流行歌曲的词也起作用。

5. Wei Ming feels differently. 卫明有不同的感受。

6.He finds watching movies frustrating. 他觉得看电影让人感到沮丧.

7.She added that having conversations with friends was not helpful at all.

她又说和朋友对话根本没用。

8.I dont have a partner to practice English with.

我没有搭档一起练习英语。

9.Later on, I realized that it doesn’t matter if you don’t understand every word.随后,我认识到听不懂每个词并没有关系。

10.Its amazing how much this helped. 我惊异于这些方法竟如此有用。

11.My teacher is very impressed. 给老师留下了深刻的印象。

12.She had trouble making complete sentences. 她很难造出完整的句子。

13.What do you think you are doing? 你在做什么?

14.Most people speak English as a second language.

英语对于大多数人来说是第二语言。

15.How do we deal with our problem? 我们怎样处理我们的问题?

16.It is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge in our education with the help of our teachers. 在老师的帮助下尽我们最大的努力来应对挑战是我们的责任。

He cant walk or even speak.他无法走路,甚至无法说话

Unit 2

一、知识点

1. used to  过去常常做某事,暗指现在已经不存在的动作或状态. 后跟动词原形. used to do sth.

   There used to be ….(反意疑问句)didn’t there?

否定形式为: didnt use to usednt to

疑问形式为: Diduse to? Usedto?

be/get used to doing sth.习惯于, to 为介词.

2. wear 表示状态. =be in +颜色的词

put on 表示动作. 

dress + 给某人穿衣服.dress sb. / oneself

have on表示状态(不用于进行时态)

3. on the swim team  on 是…的成员,在…供职.

4. Dont you remember me?  否定疑问句.(考点)

  Yes, I do. , 我记得.  No, I dont 是的, 我不记得了.

5. 反意疑问句:

陈述部分的主语为 this, that, 疑问部分主语用it; 陈述部分主语用 these, those, 疑问部分用they 做主语.

: This is a new story, isnt it?

   Those are your parents, aren’t they?

陈述部分是 there be 结构, 疑问部分仍用 there

: There was a man named Paul, wasnt there?

I am 后的疑问句, arent I

: I am in Class 2, arent I?

陈述部分与含有 not, no, never, few, little, hardly, seldom, neither, none 等词时,疑问部分用肯定.

: Few people liked this movie, didnt they?

但陈述句中若带有否定前缀或后缀的单词时, 这个句子仍视为肯定, 后面仍用否定.

: Your sister is unhappy, isnt she?

陈述部分的主语若为不定式或 V-ing 短语, 疑问部分主语用it.

: To spend so much money on clothes is unnecessary, isnt it?

陈述句中主语是 nobody, no one, everyone, everybody 等指人的不定代词时,疑问部分用they做主语; 若陈述部分主语是 something, anything, noting, everything 等指事物的不定代词时, 疑问部分用it 做主语.

: Nobody says one word about the accident, do they?

   Everything seems perfect, doesn’t it?

当主语是第一人称I, 若谓动为think, believe, guess 等词时, 且其后跟宾丛,这时疑问句部分的人称, 时态要与宾语从句保持一致, 同时还要考虑否定转移.

: I dont think he can finish the work in time, can he?

前面是祈使句, 后用 will you? (lets 开头时, 后用shall we?)

6. be terrified of 害怕的程度比 be afraid of .

7. miss: 思念, 想念  : I really miss the old days.

       错过, 未中, 未赶上, 未找到.

: Its a pity that you miss the bus.

    The boy shot at the goal, but missed.

8. no more (用在句中)=notany more (用在句尾)  指次数;

  no longer (用在句中)=notany longer (用在句尾)  指时间.

9. right: adj. 正确的, 右边的② n. 右方, 权利③ adv. 直接地.

10. It seems that Yu Mei has changed a lot. = Yu Mei seems to have changed a lot.

11. afford + n. /pron.  afford + to do 常与can, be able to 连用.

: Can you afford a new car?

   The film couldn’t afford to pay such large salaries.

12. as well as  连词, 不但…而且…  强调前者. (若引导主语, 谓动与前者在人称和数上一致

: Living things need air and light as well as water.

生命不仅需要水, 还需要空气和阳光.

     I as well as they am ready to help you.

不仅是他们, 我也愿意帮助你.

13. alone = by oneself 独自一人.    lonely 孤独的, 寂寞的.

14. in the last/past + 一段时间

   during the last/past + 一段时间    与现在完成时连用.

15. die (v.)  dead (adj.)  death (n.)  dying (垂死的)

16. play the piano 弹钢琴

17. be/ become interested in sth. 感兴趣

be interested in doing sth. 对做感兴趣

show great interest in 在……方面产生极大的兴趣

a place of interest 一处名胜 some places of interest

   如:He is interested in math, but he isn’t interested in speaking

    English. 他对数学感兴趣,但是他对说英语不感兴趣。

interested adj. 感兴趣的,指人对某事物感兴趣,往往主语是人

   interesting adj.有趣的,指某事物/某人具有趣味,主语往往是物

   an interesting book / man

18. 害怕  be terrified of sth.  如:I am terrified of the dog.

           be terrified of doing sth. 如:I am terrified of speaking.

19. on 副词,表示(电灯、电视、机械等)在运转中/打开,

其反义词off.  with the light on 灯开着

20. walk to somewhere 步行到某处  walk to school 步行到学校

21.spend 动词,表示“花费金钱、时间”

  spend…on sth. 在某事上花费(金钱、时间)

  spend…doing sth. 花费(金钱、时间)去做某事 如:

He spends too much time on clothes. 他花费太多的时间在衣着

He spend 3 months building the bridge.他花费了三个月去建这座桥。

   pay for 花费

如:I pay 10 yuan for the book. 我花了10元买这本书。

 take动词 有“花费”的意思 常用的结构有:

  It take(s) sb.        … to do sth. 如:It takes me a day to read the book.

22. chat with sb. 与某人闲聊 如:I like to chat with him.

                    我喜欢和他聊天。

23. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/某事 worry 是动词

  be worried about sb./sth. 担心某人/某事 worried 是形容词 

如:Don’t worry about him. 不用担心他。

     Mother is worried about her son. 妈妈担心他的儿子。

24. all the time 一直、始终

25. take sb. to + 地方 送/带某人去某个地方 如:

  A person took him to the hospital. 一个人把他送到了医院。

    Lui took me home. 刘把我送回了家。(home 的前面不能用to)

26.  hardly  adv. 几乎不、没有  hard 困难的;猛烈地

     hardly ever  很少 

   hardly 修饰动词时,通常放在助动词、情态动词之后,实义

动词之前 助动词/情态动词+hardly

          hardly + 实义动词  如:

  I can hardly understand them. 我几乎不能够明白他们。

I hardly have time to do it. 我几乎没有时间去做了。

It rains hard outside, I could hardly go out.

27. in the last few years. 在过去的几年内 常与完成时连用 如:

    I have lived in China in the last few years. 在过去的几年内我在中国住。

28. be different from 不同 

29. how to swim 怎样游泳 

 不定式与疑问词连用:动词不定式可以和what, which, how, where, when 等引导的疑问句连用,构成不定工短语。如:

  The question is when to start. 问题是什么时候开始。

  I don’t know where to go. 我不知道去哪。

30. make sb./ sth. + 形容词  make you happy

   make sb./ sth. + 动词原形  make him laugh

31. move to +地方 搬到某地 如:I moved to Beijing last year.

32.It seems that +从句 看起来好像…… 如:

 It seems that he has changed a lot. 看起来他好像变了许多。

33. help sb. with sth. 帮某人某事 

help sb. (to ) do sth. 帮某人做某事 

She helped me with English. 她帮助我学英语。

She helped me (to) study English。 她帮助我学习英语。

34. fifteen-year-old 作形容词 15岁的 

   fifteen-year-olds 作名词指15岁的人

  fifteen years old 指年龄 15岁 如:

a fifteen-year-old boy 一个15岁的男孩

Fifteen-year-olds like to sing. 15岁的人喜欢唱歌。

I am fifteen years old . 我是15岁。

35.支付不起 can’t /couldn’t afford to do sth.

          can’t / couldn’t afford sth.

   如:I can’t/couldn’t afford to buy the car.

       I can’t/couldn’t afford the car.  我买不起这个辆小车。

36. as + 形容词./副词+as sb. could/can 尽某人的能力 如:

    Zhou run as fast as her could/can. 她尽她最快的能力去跑。

37. get into trouble with 遇到麻烦 

38. in the end 最后

39. make a decision 下决定 下决心 

40. to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶 如:

to their surprise 令他们惊讶 to LiLei’s surprise令李雷惊讶

41. take pride in sth. 而自豪 如:

   His father always take pride in him. 他的爸爸总是以他而自豪

42. pay attention to sth. 注意,留心 如:

  You must pay attention to your friend. 你应该多注意你的朋友。

43. be able to do sth. 能做某事 如:

   She is able to do it. 她能够做到。

44. give up doing sth. 放弃做某事 如:

   My father has given up smoking. 我爸爸已经放弃吸烟了。

 

复合句与简单句的转化:

      when ------ at the age of …

      so…that…----- too… to…. / enough to …

      so that…------ in order to do sth.

      because…----- because of…

      if ….----- without /  with…

      if…----- 祈使句+ and / or + 简单句

      宾语从句----特殊疑问词+动词不定式

      be afraid

be sure          that +从句---- 动词不定式 

be sorry

      It seems / seemed that sb….------ sb. seems / seemed to do sth.

      Sb. hopes / hoped that ….-------sb. hopes / hoped to do sth.

二、 短语

1. be more interested in 对…更感兴趣.

2. on the swim team 游泳队的队员.

3. be terrified of 害怕.

4. gym class 体操课.

5. worry about. 担心.

6. all the time 一直, 总是

7. chat with 与…闲聊

8. hardly ever 几乎从不

9. walk to school = go to school on foot

  take the bus to school = go to school by bus

10. as well as 不仅…而且        

11. get into trouble 遇到麻烦

12. make a decision 做出决定   

13. to ones surprise 使某人吃惊的是

14. take pride in 为…感到骄傲   

15. pay attention to 留心, 注意

16. consist of 由…组成/构成.   be made up of 由…组成/构成.

17. instead of 代替, 而不是       

18. in the end 最后, 终于

19. play the piano 弹钢琴

 三、句子

1.I used to be afraid of the dark. 我以前害怕黑暗.

2.I go to sleep with my bedroom light on. 我开着卧室的灯睡觉.

3.I used to spend a lot of time playing games with my friends. 以前我常常花很多时间和我的朋友们玩游戏.

4.I hardly ever have time for concerts. 我几乎没有时间去听音乐会.

5.My life has changed a lot in the last few years.

6.It will make you stressed out. 那会使你紧张的.

7.It seems that Yu Mei has changed a lot. 玉梅似乎变化很大.

Unit 3

一、知识点

英语有两种语态:主动语态和补动语态 

  主动语态表示是动作的执行者

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者 

   Cats  eat  fish.    (主动语态)猫吃鱼。

 


 

   Fish  is eaten  by cats. (被动语态)鱼被猫吃。

  被动语态的构成

  由“助动词be +及物动词的过去分词”构成

  助动词be 有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与be 作为连系动词时完全一样。

时态

被动语态结构

例句

一般现在 

am

are +过去分词

is

English is spoken in many countries.

一般过去 

was +过去分词

were + 过去分词

This bridge was built in 1989.

can/should

may  +be+过去分词

must/……

The work must be done right now.

   被动语态的用法

当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或者只需强调动作的承受者时,要用被动语态。

2. allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事(主动语态)如:

  Mother allows me to watch TV every night. 妈妈允许我每晚看电视。

 be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事(被动语态)如:

  LiLy is allowed to go to Qinzhou. 莉莉被允许去钦州。

3. get their ears pierced 穿耳洞

 让/使(别人)做某事  get sth. done(过去分词)

             have sth. done        如:

 I get my car repaired. == I have my car repaired. 我让别人修好我的车

  I want to have my hair cut. 我要理发.

4. enough 足够 

 形容词+enough  如:beautiful enough 足够漂亮

  enough+名词 如:enough food 足够食物

  enough  to  足够去做 如:

 I have enough money to go to Beijing. 我有足够的钱去北京。

  She is old enough to go to school.她够大去读书了。

5. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 Please stop speaking.请停止说话。

stop to do sth. 停止下来去做某事 Please stop to speak. 请停下来说话。

6. 看起来好像…sb. seem to do sth.  = It seems that +从句

   He seems to feel very sad.

   It seems that he feels very sad. 他看起来好像很伤心。

7.倒装句:

so+助动词(be/do/will/have)/情态动词+主语 意为:也是一样

Neither/Nor + be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语(前为否定)  表示与前面所述事实一致.

  She is a student. So am I. 她是一个学生,我也是。

    She went to school just now. So did I . 她刚才去学校了,我也是

    She has finished the work. So have I . 她已经完成了工作,我也完成了。

She will go to school. So will he. 她将去学校,他也是。

Tom can’t swim. Neither can John.

8. yet 仍然,还 常用在否定句或疑问句当中 可与although/though连用

9. stay up 熬夜如:I often stay up until 12:00pm.我经常熬夜到12点。

10. clean up 打扫 整理 如:

  I have cleaned up the bedroom. 我已经打扫完了卧室。

11. 程度副词:

always总是 usually经常 sometimes有时 never从不

如:I am always/usually/sometimes/never late for school.

        我总是/经常/有时/从不上学迟到。

12. 曾经做某事: 

  Do you ever get to school late? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.

    Have you ever got to school late? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.

13. go shopping(去购物),         go fishing(去钓鱼)

go swimming(去游泳),        go boating(去划船)

go hiking(去登山),           go trekking(去徒步)

14. .be strict with+.    be strict in+事物.

: The head teacher is strict with his students

      He is strict in the work.

15. take the test 参加考试

pass the test 通过考试        fail a test  考试失败

16. the other day前几天,不久前的一天.(用于过去时)

every other day = every two days  每隔一天 (每两天)

17. agree 同意 反义词 disagree不同意 动词

   agreement 同意 反义词 disagreement 不同意 名词

18. keep sb/ sth. +形容词 使某人/某物保持…. 如:

We should keep our city clean.cleaning)我们应该保持我们的城市干净。

Don’t keep me waiting for a long time.别让我等得太久。

19. both…and… +动词复数形式

如: Both Jim and Li Ming play  bastketball.

20. learn (sth.) from sb.  向谁学习(什么) 如:

   Jim learnt English from his English teacher. 吉姆向他的英语老师学习英语

21. have an opportunity to do sth. 有机会做某事

   have a chance of doing sth. 有机会做某事

   如:I have an opportunity to go to Beijing.   I have a chance of going to Beijing.

22. at present 目前

23. at least 最少  at most 最多

24. 花费 take ,cost, spend , pay

    It take (sb.) time to do sth.  It took (me) 10days to read the book.

    sth. cost (sb.) ……        The book cost (me) 100yuan.

    sb. spend … on sth.        She spent 10days on this book.

    sb. spend …doing sth.      She spent 10days reading this book.

sb. pay … for sth.          She paid 10yuan for this book.

25. have +时间段+off    放假,休息 如:have 2 days off

off 不工作,不上班,不上学,不值班.

: I think Ill take the afternoon off. 我想下午歇班.

      She is off today. 她今天休息.

      I have three days off next week. 下周我有三天假.

      They havent had a day off since last week. 从上周来,他们没休息过一天.

26. reply to 答复某人 如:She replayed to MrGreen.

27. agree with sth. 同意某事      如:I agree with that idea.

   agree to sb.  同意某人的意见  如:I agree to LiLei.

28. get in the way of 碍事,妨碍 如:

Her social life got in the way of her studies. 她的社会生活妨碍了她的学习。

29. success  n.  succeed  v.  successful  adj.  successfully  adv.

30. think about think of 的区别 

   ①当两者译为: 认为、想起、记着时,两者可互用

     I often think about/ of that day. 我经常想起那天。

   think about 还有“考虑”之意 think of   想到、想出时两者不能互用

    At last, he thought of a good idea. 最后他想出了一个好主意。

    We are thinking about going Qinzhou. 我们正在考虑去钦州。

31. 热衷, 兴趣

be serious about doing 如:She is serious about dancing. 她对跳舞热衷。

be serious about sth. 如:She is serious about him. 她对他感兴趣。

32. practice doing 练习做某事   She often practice speaking English.

33. care about sb. 关心某人 如:Mother often care about her son.

34. also     用于句中

   either   用于否定句且用于句末

   too=as well     用于肯定句且用于句末

   I am also a student. 我也是一个学生

   I am a student too. 我也是一个学生。

I am not a student either. 我也不是一个学生。

35.allow sb to do sth  允许某人做…        allow doing sth  允许做…

36.stupid  silly  foolish 三个词都有“蠢”的意思.但略有不同.stupid 程度最强,指智力 理解力 学习能力差.  silly 指头脑简单,傻头傻脑,使人觉得可笑,带有感情色彩.  foolish 尤其在口语中广泛使用.

: He is stupid in learning math. 他学习数学很笨.

     Stop asking such silly questions. 别再问这样傻的问题了.

     You are foolish to throw away such a good chance.

你真蠢,丢掉这样一个好机会.

37.He doesn’t seem to have many friends.

=It seems that he doesn’t have many friends.

=He seems not to have many friends.

38.clean (v.) 打扫,清理         

clean up  比较彻底地打扫,清理   clean out  打扫,清理地最彻底.

39.concentrate on  全神贯注做…

: He decided to concentrate on physics because he failed the exam.

     This company concentrates on China market.

这家公司把重点放在中国市场上.

40. morethan…①与其说…不如说…; 比…更…

: The man is more stupid than nervous.

与其说那人紧张,倒不如说他愚蠢.

②在这一结构中,moreadj. 修饰名词,表示“比…多”

:I have more books than you. 我的书比你的多.

41.volunteer n. 自愿者. v. volunteer to do sth. 自愿做…

: We all volunteered to help in the old peoples home.

我们都志愿到敬老院帮忙.      

42. get in the way (of)... 妨碍...

: He never gets in others way. 他从不妨碍别人.

    The bikes over there will get in the way of others. 自行车放在那里会妨碍别人的.

43. success (n.)   successful (adj.)   succeed (v.)

44. only 处于句首,并后跟状语时,全句需要倒装.

: Only then did he understand it. 只有到那时,他才明白.

Only in this way can we learn English well. 只有这样我们才能把英语学好.

Only when she came home, did he learn the news. 当她到家时,他才得知了这消息.

45. care about  关心,在乎,在意.

   : No one cares about others nowadays. 现在没人关心别人.

      I dont care about what he does. 我并不在意他干什么.

二、短语

1. be allowed to do sth 被允许干…  

allow sb to do sth 允许某人干…

  allow doing sth 允许干…

2. sixteen-year-olds = sixteen-year-old boys and girls 16岁的孩子

3. part-time jobs 兼职工作           

4. a drivers license 驾照

5. on weekends 在周末                

6. at that age 在那个年龄段

7. on school nights 在上学期间的每个晚上     

8. stay up 熬夜

9. clean up (相当与及物动词) 清扫     

10. fail (in) a test 考试不及格

11. take the test 参加考试             

12. the other day 前几天

13. all my classmates 我所有的同学    

14. concentrate on 全神贯注于

15. be good for 对…有益              

16. in groups 成群的,按组的

17. get noisy 吵闹(系表结构)           

18. learn from 向某人学习

19. at present 目前,现在 

20. have an opportunity to do sth 有做…的机会 

21.English-English dictionary 英英词典

22. at least 至少                    

23.eight hours sleep a night 每晚8小时的睡眠

24. an old peoples home 敬老院   

25. take time to do sth 花费时间干…

26. primary schools 小学       

27. haveoff 放假,休息

28. reply to 回答,答复           

29. get in the way of 妨碍

30. a professional athlete 职业运动员 

31. achieve ones dreams 实现梦想

32. think about 思考,考虑         

33. in the end 最后,终于

34. be serious about 对…热忠/极感兴趣

35. spendon + n.   spend (in) + v-ing 在…上花费时间/金钱

36. care about 关心,担心,在乎      

37. agree with 同意…

.句子

1. I don’t think twelve-year-olds should be allowed to get their ears pierced.

我认为不应该允许12岁的孩子穿耳孔.

2.They talk instead of doing homework. 他们聊天而不是做作业.

3.He is allowed to stay up until 11:00 pm. 允许他们熬到晚上11.

4.We should be allowed to take time to do things like that more often.

我们应该被允许更加经常的花些时间多做这类事情.

5.What school rules do you think should be changed?

你认为学校的哪些制度应该改一改了?

6.The two pairs of jeans both look good on me.

这两条牛仔裤穿在我身上都适合.

7.The classroom is a real mess. 教室太脏了.

8.Should I be allowed to make my own decisions?

9.Only then will I have a chance of achieving my dream.

只有这样我才能实现我的梦想.

10.They should be allowed to practice their hobbies as much as they want.

应该允许他们对业余爱好想练多长时间就练多长时间.

11.We have nothing against running. 我们没有理由反对他跑步.

 

Unit 4

一、知识点

 

1. if 引导的非真实性条件状语从句      虚拟语气

 通过动词形式的变化来表示说话人对发生的动作或存在的状态

所持的态度或看法的动词形式称为语气,虚拟语气表示说话人所说的

话不是事实,而是一种祝愿,建议或是与事实相反的假设等。

       If 引导的条件状语从句分为真实和非真实条件句,非真实条件

句应用虚拟语气。如果要表示与现在或将来事实相反时,其虚拟语气结构为:

   

条件从句

  

谓语动词形式

动词过去式(be动词一律用were)

would+动词原形

  即:(从句)if +主语+动词过去式(be 动词用were),     一般过去时

(主句) 主语+would+动词原形         过去将来时

 如:If I had time, I would go for a walk.

如果我有时间,我就会去散步。(事实上我现在没有时间)

     If I were you, I would take an umbrella.

假如我是你的话,我会带上雨伞。(事实上我不是你)

I would say no if someone asked me to be in a movie.

假如有人请我当电影演员,我会表示拒绝。(事实上瑞没有人请我当电影演员)

2. pretend to do sth. 假装做某事  I pretended to sleep just now.

  pretend to be doing sth. 假装正在干某事

  The students pretended to be writing when the teacher came in.

  pretend +从句 假装   I pretended that I fell asleep.

3. be late for  迟到 如:

  I am late for work/ school/ class/ party.

4. a few a little 的区别,few little 的区别

   a few 一些    修饰可数名词       

      a little 一些   修饰不可数名词      两者表肯定意义

       如:He has a few friends.  他有一些朋友。  

      There is a little sugar in the bottle. 在瓶子里有一些糖。

    few  少数的  修饰可数名词        

      little 少数的 修饰不可数名词  但两者表否定意义

      如:He has few friends.  他没有几个朋友。 

        There is little sugar in the bottle.在瓶子里没有多少糖。

5. hundred, thousand , million, billion (十亿)词前面有数词或several

一词时要不能加s ,反之,则要加s 并与of 连用, 表示数量很

如:several hundred/ thousand/ million/ billion people       

几百//百万/十亿人   hundreds of trees  上百棵树

8. what if + 从句   如果怎么办 要是又怎么样 如:

  What if she doesn’t come? 要是她不来怎么办?

  What if LiLei knows?  如果李雷知道了怎么办?

9. add sth. to sth. 添加  

如:  I added some sugar to water. 我把糖添加到水里。

10. 系动词与形容词连用    get nervous 变得紧张

  feel shy  觉得害羞     look friendly 看起来友好

11. too +/+to do sth. 而不能 如:

   I’m too tired to stand. 我太累了而不能站。

12. help with sth. 如:They help with this problem.

   help sb. do.  如:They help you relax. 他们帮助你放松

13. in public 在公共场所 :

Don’t smoke in public. 请不要在公共场所吸烟。

14. energetic adj. 活力的 如:She is a energetic girl. 她是一个活力的女孩。

   energy n. 活力 如:She has lots of energies. 她有活力。

15.  ask sb. to do 做某事

    ask sb. not to do sth.不要做某事

    tell sb. to do 告诉做某事 

tell sb. not to do sth. 告诉不要做某事

如:Teacher asked me to clean the classroom.

    Teacher asked me not to clean the classroom.

16. start doing == start to do. 开始做某事 如:

   He started speaking/ to speak. 他开始说话。

17. borrow sth. from sb. 从某人那里借来某物 如:

   I borrowed a book from Lily. 我从莉莉那里借来一本书。

18.wait for sb.等某人 如:I am wait for him. 我正在等他。

19. introduce sb. to sb. 把某人介绍给某人 如:

    I introduced Lily to Anna. 我把莉莉介绍给安娜。

20. invite sb. to do 邀请某人做某事 如:

    Lily invited me to go to her home for supper. 莉莉邀请我去她家吃晚饭。

21. have dinner/ supper   吃晚饭

have lunch/ breakfast  吃午餐、吃早餐

22. plenty of 修饰不可数名词,也可以修饰可数名词 许多  如:

   They have plenty of food/ apples. 他们有许多的食物/苹果。

23. 给某人某物  give sth. to sb. 如: give an apple to me

                give sb. sth.      give me an apple 给我一个苹果

24. get along (with)=get on (with)

   ①进行,进展

The business is getting along very well. 生意进展的很顺利。

   How are you getting along with your English study?

你的英语学习进展的怎么样了?

②相处

   Do you get along with your boss?= Do you and your boss get along?   

你跟老板合得来吗?

Im getting along very well with my classmates. 我和同学们相处得很好。

25. would rather than = would rather than)宁愿,而不愿。

前后连接两个动词原形,否定形式为:would rather not do sth

would rather than = prefer to

prefer to 若连接两个动词,动词应为v-ing 形式。

He would rather jog than play football.

=He prefers jogging to playing football.

would rather 常单独使用,表示“宁愿做…”

He would rather watch TV at home.

rather than = instead of 而不是(连接两个并列成分,前后对称)。

I’d prefer to go to in summer rather than in winter.

  I decided to write rather than telephone.

  I like going out with you rather than with him.

  She enjoys listening rather than speaking.

25. in fact 事实上

26. let sb. down 让某人失望 如:

   Don’t let your mother down. 不要让你的妈妈失望。

27. come up with sth. 提出 想出

如:He came up with a good idea. 他提出了一个好主意。

   catch up with sb.  追上 赶上

如:Lily caught up with Anna. 莉莉赶上了安娜。

28. have experience doing 在做某事有经验 如:

   I have experience teaching Chinese. 我在教英语方面有经验。

29. come out 出版,出来

如:The magazine comes out once a week. 这种杂志每周出一次。

30. by accident 偶然地,无意之中 如:

Last week I cut my finger by accident. 上个星期我不小心割到自己的手指。

31. hurry to do 匆忙   I hurry to call the police.          

32. more than=over 超过

34. offer 提供  offer sb sth  给××……  

offer to sb sth 主动提出干……

35. give sb sth=give sth to sb

类似的词还有:passlendshowwritesend

buy sb sth=buy sth for sb

类似的词还有:makedrawcook

36.look for寻找find找到、发现

find out指经过观察、探索、调查等弄清楚、弄明白。

discover 指发现那些客观存在而不为人所知的实情。如科学上的重大发现。

37.bring 带来 take 带走  fetch 去并拿来

38.talk to/with sb 同××说话。

tell 告诉, 分辨,辨别。

speak to sb 同××说话,做及物动词,后跟语言。

say 后跟名词、代词及宾语从句做宾语,着重强调说话内容。

39.What if ……  如果……将会怎么样?(引导条件状语从句、疑问句)

What if she doesn’t come?  她要是不来怎么办?

  What if your parent dont agree? 如果你的父母不同意怎么办?

What if you should fall sick? 如果你生病了怎么办?

40.What does/do ×× look like?  问相貌。

Whats ×× like? 问“品质性格”。

41.give a speech 做演讲  have a speech听演讲  give a report 做报告

have a report 听报告

42.permission (n.) 允许,许可        permit (v.) 允许

  without permission 未经许可

43.plenty of 充足的,相当多的。修饰可数或不可数名词,只能用于肯定句。否定、疑问句中用 enough.

44.not……in the slightest=not……at all 根本不

45.a little = a bit 修饰形容词、副词 a little = a bit of 修饰不可数名词

46.the rest 其余的,可指代可数或不可数名词。The other(s) 只能指代可数名词

宾语从句 :宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。

  由连接词+ 主语+ 谓语 构成

   常由下面的一些词引导:

  ㈠由that 引导  表示陈述意义 that 可省略

     He says (that) he is at home. 他说他在家里。

  ㈡由if , whether 引导 表示 一般疑问意义(带有是否、已否、对否等)

      I don’t know if / whether Wei Hua likes fish. 我不知道韦华是否喜欢鱼。

  ㈢由 连接代词、连接副词(疑问词) 引导 表示特殊疑问意义

      Do you know what he wants to buy?  你知道他想要买什么吗?

 ㈣从句时态要与主句一致

    当主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何时态

    He says (that ) he is at home. 他说他在家里。

    I don’t know (that) she is singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。

She wants to know if I have finished my homework.

她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。

    Do you know when he will be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来?

    当主句是一般过去时,从句应使用过去某时态(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)

    He said (that) he was at home. 他说他在家里。

    I didn’t know that she was singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。

She wanted to know if I had finished m homework.

她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。

Did you know when he would be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来?

二、短语

1give it to charity 把它捐给慈善机构   

2medical research 医学研究

3What if …… 如果…怎么样?           

4get nervous 紧张

5take a big exam 参加大考               

6help with 有助于

7in public 在公共场合                  

8hardly ever 几乎不

9the whole school 全校              

10without permission 为经许可

11be(make) friends with 与…交朋友 

12ask ones permission 请求××的允许

13introduceto 把…介绍给…      

14inviteto do 邀请…干…

15social situations 社会环境     

16not in the slightest 根本不,一点也不        

17right away 立刻,马上              

18all day 全天

19be friendly to 对…友好        

20at lunch time 在午饭时间

21a bit shy 有点害羞         

22English speech contest 英语演讲比赛

23represent the class 代表班级       

24come top 名列第一(前茅)

25let down 使…失望           

26come up with 提出、想出

27be sure of + n./pron.    

be sure to do  相信…       be sure +that 从句      

28the rest of the students 其余的学生

29have a lot of experience (in) doing sth 在做某事方面有经验

30deal with 对付,处理                

31come out 出版

32give advice on 在…方面提出意见、建议  

33by accident 偶然地,无意之中

34hurry to do sth 匆匆忙忙干…      

35an internet friend 网友

三、句子

1.He doesnt know if he should bring a present. 他不知道是否该带礼物。

2.You shouldnt worry about what other people say.

你不应该考虑别人说什么。

3.What will you do if you had a million dollars?

如果你有一百万美元,你会干什么?

4.If I were you, I d take a small present.

如果我是你,我会带一个小礼物。

5.Im too tired to do well.我太累了,没考好。

6.Dogs can be a lot of trouble.狗会带来很多麻烦。

7.What are you like? 你是什么样的人?

8.Id invite him/her to have dinner at my house.

我会邀请他(她)到我家吃饭。

9.You enjoy the company of other people.你喜欢别人的陪伴。

10. I feel nervous talking in front of many people.

我在众人面前讲话时感到紧张。

11.She always comes top in the school exams.

她在学校的考试中总是名列前茅。

12.She doesnt want to let her friends down.她不愿让朋友失望。

13.If I were you, Ill get out of here.如果我是你,我会离开这里。

                               虚拟语气

一、词的语气

指我们平常说的说话人说话的口气。(在英语中,语气除了指语调以外,最主要的是通过动词发生变化而表示不同语气)

英语中的语气分为三类:

陈述语气(用于陈述句、疑问句、感叹句)

祈使语气(用于祈使句)

  虚拟语气(用于条件状语从句、宾语从句等)

二、虚拟语气

如果所说的不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、建议或是一种实现不了的空想,就用虚拟语气。

三、虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法

1、真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句

 eg If he doesnt hurry up, he will miss the bus.( 真实条件状语)

 If he was free, he asked me to tell stories.(真实条件状语)

If I were you, I would go at once.(非真实条件状语从句)

If there was no air, people would die.(非真实条件状语从句)

2、虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法及动词形式

    表示与现在事实相反的情况

   If I were you, Id take an umbrella.如果我是你,我会带把伞。

If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you.

如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道)

If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth.

如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水)

   If I had any money with me, I could lend you some.

如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实:没带钱)

  If he studied harder, he might pass the exam.如果他在努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实:学习不用功)

     ②表示与过去事实相反的情况

从句谓语动词形式

主句谓语动词形式

Had+过去分词

Should/would/could/might+have+过去分词

从句

例句

主句

          were

If+主语   did

were to do 

(①通常与一个表示时间状语连用) were to do可能性最小,

should+动词原形。

If it rained tomorrow our picnic

would be put off.

假如那天下雨,我们的郊游就推迟。

 

 

主句+should/would /might  /could+动词原形

 

 

(条件)从句谓语动词形式

主句谓语动词形式

谓语动词用过去式(bewere

should/would/could/might+动词原形

eg  If I had got there earlier, I should/could have met her.

如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了)

   If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake.

如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。(事实:没有听我的话)

  ③表示对将来情况的主观推测(可能相反或可能性很小)

eg: If he would come here tomorrow, I should/would talk to him.

  如果他哪天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小)

  If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating.

  如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了,(事实:不知能否下雪)

If she were to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter.

如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事得始末。

四、虚拟语气的其他用法

1、虚拟语气用在wish 后的宾语从句

a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式

eg: I wish I had your brains.我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你)

b、表示过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词:had+v-ed

eg: I wish I had known the truth of the matter.我希望我原来知道这件事的真相。(事实:原来不知道)

c、表示将来难以实现的愿望

谓语动词:should/would + 动词原形

eg: I wish I should have a chance again.很难再有这样的机会了。(事实:很难再有这样的机会了)

②虚拟语气用在suggest(建议)insist(坚持)demand(要求)order(命令)等动词后的宾语从句中。

在这种用法中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用:“should +

词原形”或只用“动词原形”。

He suggested

   He insisted

   He demand       that we (should) take the teachers advice

   He ordered

Unit 5

一、知识点:

1.情态动词must, may , might, could, may , can’t表示推测含义与用法后面都接动词原形,都可以表示对现在情况的揣测和推断但他们

  含义有所不同

     must 一定 肯定 (100%的可能性)

     may, might, could有可能,也许   (20%80%的可能性)

   can’t 不可能,不会     (可能性几乎为零)

  The dictionary must be mine. It has my name on it.

   The CD might/could/may belong to Tony because

he likes listening to pop music.

   The hair band can’t be Bob’s. After all, he is boy!

2. whose 谁的 疑问词 作定语 后面接名词

如:Whose book is this? This is Lily’s.

3. belong to 属于 如:

   That English book belongs to me.(不能用名词性的物主代词)

4.  play 指弹奏乐器时,常在乐器前用定冠词 如:

  play the guitar  play the piano  play the violin

play 指进行球类运动时,则不用定冠词 如:

   play football  play basketball  play baseball

5. if引导的条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,

从句用一般现在时代替将来时 如:

  If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late.如果你不快点,你将会迟到

6. if you have any idea== if you know 如果你知道

7. on 关于(学术,科目)

8. try to do sth. 尝试做某事 如:

  I try to climb the tree. 我尝试爬树。

9. because of , because

  because of + 名词/代词/名词性短语

  because + 从句  如:

  I do it because I like it. 我做这件事是因为我喜欢。

    I had to move because of my job. 因为工作的原因我得搬家。

10. own v.owner n.  listen v.listener n.  learn v.learner n.

11. catch a bus 赶公车

12.  neighbor 邻居 指人

     neighborhood 邻居 指地区也可指附近地区的人 

13. local 当地的 如:local teacher 当地的教师

14. noise  n. 噪音 是个可数名词 noises

15. call the police 报警 如:Quick! Call the police! 快!叫警察!

16. anything strange 一些奇怪的东西

当形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,放在这些词的后面

17. there be sb./ sth. doing 如:

  There is a cat eating fish.

    There must be something visiting our home.

18. escape from …从哪里逃跑出来 如:

    He escaped from the burning building. 他从燃烧的大概中逃出来。

19. an ocean of + 名词 极多的,用不尽的 如:an ocean of energy.

20. unhappy 不高兴的 反义词 happy 高兴的

21. final adj. 最后的 finally adv. 最后地

22. dishonest 不诚实的 反义词 honest 诚实的。

23. get on 上车         get off 下车 

24. use up 用光、用完 如:They have used up all the money.

他们已经用完了所有的钱。

25. attempt to do 试图 如:

  The boys attempted to leave for Beijing. 男孩子们试图想去北京。

26. wake 动词 唤醒 常用的词组:wake up 意为醒来 如:

  Please wake me up at 8 o’clock. 请在8点钟叫醒我。

27.  look for 寻找 指过程

find 找 指结果  如:

  I am looking for a pen. 我正在找一支笔。(指找的过程)

  I found my pen just now. 我刚刚找到了我的笔。(指找的结果)

28.  hear 听 指听的结果

listen 指听的过程 如:

  Did you hear ? 你听到了吗?(指听的结果,听或没听到)

  I often listen to the music. 我经常听音乐。(指听的过程)

29. try one’s best to do sth. 尽某人的最大努力去做某事 如:

  He tried his best to run. 他尽他的最大努力去跑。

30. 名词所有格 

  名词所有格的构成有两种形式

 是在名词后面 ’s 或是以s结尾 名词,只在名词的后面

如:Ann’s book 安的书, our teachers’ office我们老师们的办公室

    注:双方共有的所有格,只在后面一个名词加’s, 如:

  Lily and Lucy’s father 莉莉和露西的爸爸(她们的爸爸是同一个人)

 …of …介词短语表示无生命东西的所有格 如:

   a picture of my family 我家人的相片 

  有时也有’s表示无生命的东西的所有格 如:

   today’s newspaper,  the city’s name

31happen指偶然的发生;

take place用于计划好的事情或自然的发生;(二者无被动语态)

happen to do sth碰巧干某事.  happen to sb.某人发生了什么事

32raise [reiz] 及物动词 举起、提高 ;募捐 用外力升起,如升旗

rise(不及物动词)上升。自然升起,如价格上涨,日出等。

Raise the money for charity.  Raise the Five-red-star flag

33hope to do sthhope that从句。 

wish to do sthwish sb to do sthwish that从句。

34howeverbut

1)从语义上看,but所表示的是很明显的对比、转折。

2)从语法上看,but是并列连词,however是个副词。

3)从语序上看,but总位于所引导的句首,however可放在句首、句中、句尾。

4)从标点上看,but之后没有逗号,however之前、之后短语用逗号隔开。

在完成时态

have/ has + 过去分词

表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果

常与already, just , yet , ever, never 连用

Have you finished your work yet?你完成了你的工作了吗?

Yes, I have. I have just finished it. 是的。我刚刚完成了。

I have already finished it . 我已经完成了。

Have you ever been to China? 你曾经去过中国吗?

No, I have never been there. 没有,我从来也没有去过。

表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作 或状态和表示过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括现在在内)的一段时间的状态连用如:(for + 时间段,since + 时间点,或过去某一动作, 以及how long

注: 非延续性动词在现在完成 时态中不能和for, since 引导的表示一段时间的状语的肯定句连用。

应转为相应的延续性动词 如:

buy---- have    die---- be dead   join ---- be in  

borrow----- keep   leave---- be away  

I have bought a pen.------ I have had a pen for 2 weeks.

The dog has died.------- The dog has been dead since last week.

⑷①have (has) been to + 地点 去过某地 已经回来

have (has) gone to + 地点 去了某地 没有回来

have been in + 地点      一直呆在某地 没有离开过  如:

She has been to Shanghai. 她去过上海。(已经回来)

She has gone to Shanghai. 她去了上海。(没有回来)

She has been in Shanghai for 2 days.她呆上海两天了。(没有离开过上海)

二、短语:

1be long to属于                                 

2listen to classical music听古典音乐   

3at school上学、求学、在学校      

4go to the concert去听音乐会         

5have any/some idea知道 have no idea不知道

6a math test on algebra有关代数的数学考试  

7the final exam期末考试           

8because of因为                  

9a present for his mother送给她妈妈的礼物

10run for exercise跑步锻炼 

11wear a suit穿西装

12make a movie拍电影

13in our neighborhood在我们附近、在我们小区

14have fun玩耍、取闹

15his or her own idea她(他)自己的看法

16late night深夜

17an ocean of许许多多、无穷无尽的

18be care of=look out当心、小心

19pretend to do sth假装干…

20use up用完、用光

、句子:

1If you have any idea where might be please call me.

如果你知道它可能在哪,请打电话给我。

2Its crucial that I study for it because it counts 30%to the final exam.

关键是我必须学,因为它占期末考试的30%

3What do you think anxious means?

你认为“anxious”是什么意思?

4He could be running for exercise.他可能是跑步锻炼身体。

5He might be running to catch a bus.他可能是在跑着赶公共汽车。

6Why do you think the man is running?你觉得那个男的为什么跑?

7No more mystery in Bell Tower neighborhood.

钟塔附近不再有神秘的事了。

Unit 6

一、 知识点

1.prefer  v.更喜爱,更喜欢,相当于like……better,其过去式、过去分词为preferred,常用于以下结构:                         

(1)prefer+名词、代词I preferred music.  Which do you prefer?

(2)prefer+动词不定式“宁愿干……”

She prefers to live among the working people.

(3) prefer+v-ing    I prefer living abroad.

(4)prefer+动词不定式复合结构:

常见的搭配有:

prefer……to……喜欢……而不喜欢……(to为介词)

She prefers apples to bananas.

prefer doing to doingto为介词)

He prefers running to walking.

prefer to do …… rather than do sth.宁愿干……而不愿干……

They prefer to play games rather than watch TV.

2.gentle: ①轻柔,温和(往往指音乐、嗓音或风)

②温柔的,文雅的(往往指人的性格)

3.remind……of……使某人回想起或意识到某人、某事

She reminded me of her sister.

The pictures remind me of my school days.

4.表示“也”的用法:

also 用在句中,too 用在句末,as well 多用于口语,用在句末,这三个表达都用在肯定句。either “也” 用在否定句尾

5. What do you think of ?    =How do you like?

6.as 的用法:

①用作连词“按照”

Please do it again as I told you.

②连词,当……的时候,着重强调两个动词同时发生

She sang as she worked.

③表示原因,“因为,由于”比较口语化,语气也较弱,所表示的原因比较明显。

As I didnt know the way, I asked the policeman.

asas  和……一样

7.over the years多年来   ,往往与现在完成时连用

8.though 不做副词“可是,不过,然而”放在句尾

9. be sure of +n. / pron. /短语                 

be sure that 从句                 }相信,对……有把握             

be sure to do 务必……一定……

make sure 确保,核实,查收,弄清楚

10.one of the+最高级+复数名词,最……之一

11.过去分词作定语,表示被动或完成

12. on display=on show

13.interest:n.兴趣,趣味;②v.使感兴趣

He interested me in football.他使我对足球感兴趣。

Ive got a lot of books that might interest you.我有许多可能使你感兴趣的书。

14.class  等级,级别,阶级

15. whatever=no matter what

16.suggest:①建议,后跟宾语从句,用虚拟语气;

②表示,暗示,后跟宾语从句,不用虚拟语气。

17. energy (n.)=energetic (adj.)

18.honest 该词是元音发音开头,前面的不定冠词用“an.

19.先行词若为地点或时间时,后面的关系词用关系代词还是关系副词,要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。若关系词作定语从句的主语、宾语或定语,用关系代词;若关系词作状语,则用关系副词。

20. along with 伴随  一道

  I will go along with you. 我同你一道去。

  I sing along with music. 我伴随着音乐唱歌。

21. dance to sth. 随着跳舞

  She likes dancing to the music. 她喜欢随着音乐而跳舞。

22. different kinds of 各种各样different kinds of clothes 各种各样的衣服

23. music n. 音乐 musician n. 音乐家 musical

24. take … to … …. 如:

  My father often takes me to the park. 我的爸爸经常带我去公园。

  Please take this box to my office. 请拿这个盒子到我的办公室。

25. be important to sb. 重要

   be important for sb. to do. 做某事对某人很重要

26. though == although 作连词  虽然,尽管

放在句子中间/句首,不能和but 连用

Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,但他还在工作

Mr. Smith , though he was young, did it very well.

史密斯先生虽然年轻,却做得很好。

27. energy n. 活力  energetic adj. 有活力的

28. most of … …的大多数

29. keep healthy 保持健康

30. get together 聚在一起

31. be bad for sth. 有坏处的

   be bad for doing sth. 有坏处

32. take care of === look after 照顾 关心 如:

   She often takes care of / looks after her son.

33 stay away from 远离如:

    Stay away from me , I have a cold. 请远离我,我得了感冒

34. to be honest 老实说 如:

   To be honest I really like flowers. 老实说我真的很喜欢花。

35. dislike 不喜欢 反义词 like 喜欢

36. fisherman 渔夫 复数形式 fishermen

37. photography n. 摄影 photograph n. 照片 相片

photographer n. 摄影师

38. be in agreement 意见一致 常与介词on /about连用如:

   They are in agreement on that question. 他们对那个问题意见一致。

39. mainly adv. 主要地 首要地  main adj. 主要的

.短语

1.expect to do sth.期望干……

expect sb. to do sth期望某人干……    

2.catch up with追上,赶上

3.different kinds of music各种不同的音乐

4.quiet and gentle songs轻柔的歌曲   

5. taketo  带……到……

6. remindof…使某人想起或意识到…… 

7.her own songs她自己的歌曲

8.be important to对……重要         

9.Yellow River黄河

10.Hong Taos latest movie洪涛最近的电影  

11.over the years多年来

12.be sure to do sth.务必干……一定干……

13.one of the best known Chinese photographers世界上最有名的中国摄影家之一

14.on display展览,展出       

15.come and go来来往往

16.cant stand不能忍受       

17.look for寻找

18.feel sick感到恶心,不舒服  

19.have a great time玩得高兴,过得愉快

20.to be honest说实话            

21.be lucky to do幸运的是……

22.my six-month English course6个月的英语课

23.most of my friends我的大部分朋友 

24.go for去找某人,想法得到某事物

25.stay healthy保持健康       

26.French fries薯条

27.stay away from与……保持距离 

28.be in agreement意见一致(后跟短语、句子)

29.barbecued meat烤肉       

30.a tag question反意疑问句

31.be bad for对……有害

三.句子

1.I love singers who write their own music.我喜欢自己创作曲子的歌手。

2.We prefer music that has great lyrics.我们更喜欢歌词很棒的曲子。

3.What do you dislike about this CD.你不喜欢这张CD的什么?

4.What does it remind you of?它使你想起了什么?

5.The music reminds me of Brazilian dance music.这首曲子使我想起了巴西舞曲。

6.It does have a few good features, though.

然而,它的确也有一些好的方面。

7.She really has something for everyone.

每个人的确都能从她的作品中领悟到一些东西。

8.Whatever you do, dont miss this exhibition.

无论怎样,你都不能错过这次展出。

9.As the name suggests, the band has a lot of energy.

正如乐队名字所暗示的那样,这支乐队很有活力。

10. Some people say they are boring, but others say they are great.

11.If I were you, Id eat nuts instead.如果我是你,我会改吃坚果。

Unit7

一、知识点:

1. tired 累的        tiring 令人疲惫的

  bored 讨厌       boring 令人厌烦/讨厌的

  excited 兴奋的    exciting 令人兴奋/激动的

  amazed 惊讶的    amazing 令人惊讶的

2. education n. 教育  educational 有教育意义的

3. 想要做would like to do

  想要would like sth.

   常用的句型有:

   What would you like to do? 你想要做什么?

   I would like to visit GuiLin. 我想去参观桂林。

   What would you like ?  你想要什么?

I would like some tea. 我想来些茶。

Would you like to go to my party? 你来不来参加我的晚会?

(表邀请) Yes, I’d love/ like to . No, thanks.

Would you like some tea or coffee? 你是要点茶还是咖啡?

Yes, I’d love/ like. No. thanks.

Where would you like to visit/ go? 你想去哪呢?(本单元的重点句型)

4.  go on vacation 去度假

   go on a trip 去旅行

   go on a picnic 去野炊

5.  hope to do 希望做某事 I hope to go to Beijing. 我希望去北京。

   hope (that) + 从句  希望….

I hope that I can go to Beijing.我希望我能去北京。

      I hope (that) she can pass the test.我希望她能通过考试。

6. I love places where the people are friendly. 我喜欢人们友好的地方。

  where 关系副词,引导定语从句

  where引导定语从句修饰表示地点的先行词如:the place, the city

  That is the school where I studied 10 years ago. 那就是我10年前所就读的学校。

7. 不定代词   参看课本P141

   注:形容词必须放在不定代词、不定副词的后面

8. consider doing考虑做某事

  I am considering changing my job. 我正在考虑换工作。

9. cost (sb.) 钱、时间  The book cost me 10 yuan 这本书花了我10元。

10. in general 一般来说, 大体上, 通常

11. be supposed to do 应该做…. === should  如:

   Scientists are supposed to know a lot. 科学家们应该知道更多。

12. take a trip 去旅行

13. provide sb. with sth 供应某人某物=== provide sth for sb.

   如:They provide us with water.

       They provide water for us.

14. how far 问路程 多远(20 kilometers , five munites’ walk

   how old 问年龄 多少岁(13 years old

   how long 问时间 多久;多长(since, for

   how often 问频率 多久一次(sometimes, often, 3 times a day, every day

15. be away 离开 如:

  I was away 2days ago. 我两天前离开了。

    I will be away for a few days. 我将离开一些天。

16. inexpensive  adj. 不贵的  反义词 expensive adj. 贵的

17.  let sb. do 让某人做某事 Let me help you.让我帮你吧。

   let sb. not do 让某人不要做某Let us not laugh. 让我们不要笑了。

18. in the future 将来 

She will a good mother in the future. 在将来她将会是一个好妈妈。

19. to 表示 “的”有:

answers to question 问题的答案

  the key to the door 这扇门的钥匙

20. as soon as possible 尽可能的快

21. continue doing == go on doing 继续做某事 如:

   She continued singing. == She went on singing. 她继续唱歌。

22. according to 根据

23. be willing to do 愿意做某事 如:

    I am willing to help you. 我愿意帮你。

24. on the other hands 另一方面

25. hold on to sth. 保持,不要放弃

   Please hold on to my hand. 不要放开我的手。

26. come true 实现 如:

   My dream have come true. 我的梦实现了。

27through  穿过 含有“in”的意思 across 横过  含有“on”的意思

28. Some day=someday 只指将来某一天

one day 既可指将来某一天,也可指过去某一天。

28. Plan 计划打算(1) plan to do sth

We are planning to visit London this summer  /Do plan to stay late?

(2) 跟名词或者代词    Have you planned your trip?

We have been planning this visit for months.

(3) plan for 为…做计划He planned for a picnic if the next day were fine.

(4) plan on 打算有(做某事)She had not planned on so many guests.

They are planning on an/for an outing.

29.强调句型:It is(was)that (who ,whom)

(1) 强调句型可用来强调各种句子成分

(2) 强调句中的连词who,whom只用来指代人,that 即可以指代人也可以指代物被强调部分是时间,地点等仍用that

(3)that,whom, who 后的句中的谓语与原句保持一致

(4)强调句中只有it is ,it was 两种时态形式,

如:I am right ------It is I who(that) am right.

又如:They will have a meeting tomorrow.

It is they who(that) will have a meeting tomorrow.

Its a meeting that they will have tomorrow.

Its tomorrow that they will have a meeting.

30.在英语中,有although 不能有but;because 不能有so

、短语

1.go on vacation 去度假    

2.trek through the jungle 徒步穿越丛林

3.some day 有朝一日   

4.one of the liveliest cities 最有活力的城市之一

5.be supposed to do sth. 应该干。 

6.pack light clothes 穿薄衣服

7.take a trip 去旅行

8.provide sb with sth = provide sth for sb  为了某人提供某物

9.be away 离开,远离   

10.the answer to the question 问题的答案

11.according to 根据。按照。  1

2.work as tour guides 做导游的工作

13.dream of 梦想,想到    

14.less realistic dreams 不现实的梦想

15.be willing to do sth. 愿意干。

16.achieve ones dreams 实现梦想

17.sail across the pacific 横渡太平洋

18.hold on to 保持,不要放弃(卖掉)

19.take it easy 从容 轻松 不紧张  

20.Niagara Falls 尼亚加拉大瀑布

21.Eiffel Tower 艾菲尔铁塔   

22.Notre Dame Cathedral 巴黎圣母院

23.this time of year 一年中的这个时候

24.in general 通常 ,大体上, 一般而言

三、句子

1.where would you like to go on vacation?

Id like to trek through the jungle.

2.l like places where the weather is always warm.

3.I like to go somewhere relaxing 我喜欢去休闲的地方

4.For your next vacation, why not consider visiting Paris?

你下次度假为什么不考虑去巴黎?

5.Traveling around Paris by taxi can cost a lot of money.

乘坐出租车游览巴黎要花费很多钱

6.So unless you speak French yourself, its best to travel with someone who can translate things for you.

因此,除非你自己会讲法语,否则最好与一个能为你翻译的人一起去。

7. Wed like to be away for three weeks.

我们大约要去三个星期.

8.The person has a lot of money to spend on the vacation.

度假中这个人有很多钱可以花.

9.I hope you can provide me with some information about the kinds of vacations that your firm can offer

我希望能给我提供一些贵公司能经营的旅游项目的信息.

10.Could you please give me some suggestions for vacation spots?

你能给我一些有关度假地的建议吗?

11.You need to pack some warm clothes if you go there.

你如果去那里,需要带一些暖和的衣服。

12.Id love to sail across the Pacific.

我想横渡太平洋。

Unit 8

一.知识点: 短语动词小结

常见短语动词结构有下面几种:

 1.动词+副词 如:give up 放弃 turn off 关掉 stay up 熬夜

这种结构有时相当于及物动词,如果其宾语是代词,就必须放在动

词和副词之间,如果是名词,则既可插在动词和副词之间,也可放

在短语动词后。

2. 动词+介词 如:listen of look at belong to 属于

   这种结构相当于及物动词,后面跟宾语。

3. 动词+副词+介词 如:come up with 提出,想出

run out of 用完,耗尽

  4. 动词+名词(介词) 如:take part in参加 catch hold of 抓住

1.cheer (sb.) up  使(某人)高兴、振作 如:cheer me up 使我高兴

  clean up  打扫   clean-up n. 打扫

2. homeless adj. 无家可归的  a homeless boy 一个无家可归的男孩home  n.

4. sick  adj. 生病的  作表语、定语

  ill  adj. 生病的    作表语 ,不能作定语

5. volunteer to do  v. 志愿效劳、主动贡献 

  volunteer  n. 志愿者

6. come up with  提出 想出 === think up 想出

  catch up with  赶上 追上

7. put off doing 推迟做某事

  put on  穿上 (指过程)

  put up  张贴

8. write down 写下  记下

9. call up 打电话

  make a telephone call 打电话

10. set up 成立 建立

The new hospital was set up in 2000. 这座医院是在2000年成立的。

11. each 每个 各自的 强调第一个人或事物的个别情况 常与of 连用

   every 每个 每一个的 一切的 则有“全体”的意思不能与of 连用

12. put …to use 投入使用,利用

   They put the new machine to use. 他们把新机器投入使用

13. help sb. (to) do 帮助某人做某事 help him (to) study

   help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事 help him with English

   help do  帮助做某事  help study

14. plan to do 计划做某事

   plan + 从句

   I plan to go to Beijing. === I plan (that) I will go to Beijing.

 我计划去北京。

15. spend … doing 花费… I spent a day visiting Beijing.

我花了一天的时间去参观北京。

   spend… on sth.  花费… I spent 3 years on English.

16.not only … but (also) … 不但而且用来连接两个并列的成分

  (1)引导以 not only …but (also)… 开头的句子往往引起部分倒装。

因此 Not only do I feel good but (also)…. 是倒装句。也是说得要

把前面的句子中的助动词或者是情态动词放在主语的前面。如:

    Not only can I do it but (also) I can do best.

我不仅能做到而且做得最好。

  Not only…but (also)… 接两主语时,谓语动词随后面的主语人称和数的变化 也就是就近原则 如:

  Not only Lily but (also) you like cat. 不仅莉莉而且你也喜欢猫。

  Not only you but (also) Lily likes cat. 不仅你而且莉莉喜欢猫。

常见的就近原则的结构有:

 Neither… nor…即不也不… (两者都不)Neither you nor I like him. 我和你都不喜欢他。

 Either… or… 不是就是… (两者中的一个)Either Lily or you are a student.

 Not only …but (also)…

 There be

17. join 参加 (指参加团体、组织)  如:join the Party 入党

   take part in 参加 (指参加活动)  如:

take part in sports meeting 参加运动会

18. run out run out of

  run out (become used up). 其主语往往为物。如时间,食物,金钱,油等,本

身就含有被动意义。

     His money soon ran out. 他的钱很快就花光了。

     My patience has completely run out. 我没有一点耐心了。

     Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。

  run out of 主语为人,表示主动含义。

   He is always running out of money before pay day. 他总是在发工资的日子还没有到就把钱花完了。

   两者在一定条件下可以互换

  如:The petrol is running out. 汽油快用完了

= We are running out of petrol. 我们快把汽油用完了。

     Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。= We are running out of time

19.  take after (在外貌、性格等方面)(父母等)相像

     be similar to ..相像                 take after 相像

     look after 照顾                      take care of 照顾

20. work out  v. + adj.

  ①结局,结果为

 The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. 他提出的这个策略效果很好。

  ②算出,制订出,消耗完(精力等)

  He never seems to be worked out. 他好像永远不会疲乏似的。

  He worked out a plan. 他制订了一个计划。

  I have worked out our total expenses. 我已经算出了我们总的费用。

21. hang out 闲荡 闲逛

 I like to hang out at mall with my friends. 我喜欢和我的朋友一起去购物中心闲荡。

22. be able to do

   be unable to do 不能 不会

23. thank you for doing 谢谢做某事 如:

   thank you for helping me 谢谢做帮助我

24. for sure  确实如此,毫无疑问

   You don’t have money. That’s for sure. 你没有钱,这是毫无疑问的。

25. fill… with… 使充满  填充

   She filled the bowl with water. 她用水填满碗。

26. like  prep.

27. help sb. out 帮助做事,解决难题(摆脱困境)

   I can’t work out this math problem. Please help me out.

我不能算出这道数学问题,请你帮我解决。

28. train n. 火车              train v. 训练

   train sb. to do. 训练某人做某事

   She trains her dog to fetch things. 她训练她的狗去取东西。

29. at once == right away 立刻 马上 如:

   Do it at once. 马上去做。

   I’ll go there at once/ right away. 我马上去那里。

30. one day 有一天 (指将来/过去)      some day 有一天(指将来) 如:

    One day I went to Beijing. 有一天我去了北京。

    Some day I’ll go to Beijing. 有一天我将去北京。

31. specially adv. 特意地 专门地 特别地   special adj. 特别的

32. donation n. 捐赠物    donate v. 捐赠 赠送

33. part of speech  词性 词类

34. disabled adj. 肢体有残疾的   disable v. 不能

35. hand out  分发  hand out bananas

   give out 分发    give out sth to sb. ….给某人

   give up doing 放弃  give up smoking 放弃吸烟

   give away 赠送 捐赠  give away sth. to …. give away money to kids

   give sb. sth. 给某人某东西  give me money 给我钱

   give sth. to sb. 给某人某东西 give money to me 给我线

36. volunteer    ①可数名词 “志愿者”   adj. 自愿的

   vi. volunteer to do sth

They are the Chinese Peoples Volunteers. 他们是中国人民志愿军。

I volunteer to help you. 我自愿帮助你。

 37. no longer = not any longer  指时间上不再延续。

   no more = not any more  指动作上不再延续。

二.短语

1.clean up 清扫                    

2.give out 分发,发放

3.cheer up=makehappier 使...高兴,使...振作

4.after school study program 课外学习班

5.come up with=think up 提出,想出    

6.put off 推迟

7.write down 写下,记下         

8.put up 张贴

9.hand out 分发,发放         

10.call up 打电话

11.ser up=establish 建立      

12.be home to sb 是某人的家园

13.volunteer ones time to do sth 自愿花时间干...

14.putto use ...投入使用        

15.elementary school 小学

16.plan to do sth 计划干...打算干

17.coach a football team for kids 训练少年足球队

18.start a Chinese History club 开办一个中国史俱乐部

19.run out of 用完,耗尽   

20.take after 在性格或长相方面与父母相象

21.fix up 修理   

22.give away 捐赠   

23.be similar to ...相似

24.ask for 索要    

25.a call-in center for parents 家长热线

26.hang out 闲荡

27.put up signs asking for singing jobs 张贴寻求唱歌工作的广告

28.run out of money for singing lessons 学唱歌的钱用完了

29.disabled people 残疾人       

30.for sure 确实如此,毫无疑问

31.fillwith... ...填充...   be full of 装满了...

32.help...out 帮助...做事,解决难题(摆脱困境)

33.a specially trained dog 一只经过特殊训练的狗

34.train sb to do sth 训练某人干...   

35.fetch my book 把我的书拿来

36.part of speech 词性

三.句子

1We cant put off making a plan. Clean-up Day is only two weeks from

now. 我们不能推迟制订计划,清洁日离现在只有两周了。

2She puts this love to good use by working in the after-school care centre at her local elementary school. 她在当地的一所小学的课后辅导中心工作,使这个爱好得到较好的利用

3Not only do I feel good about helping other people, but I get to spend time doing what I love to do. 帮助别人不但自己感到快乐,而且我开始花时间做自己喜欢做的事了。

4The three students plan to set up a student volunteer project at heir school. 这三个学生计划在他们校开展一个学生志愿者项目。

5.He also put up some sign asking for old bikes.他还贴了一些需求旧自行车的告。

6.The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. 几米想出的这个办法很效。

7He did a radio interview. 他接受了电台的采访。

8We need to come up with a plan. 我们需要指定一个计划。

9You could help clean up the city parks. 你可以帮助打扫城市公园。

10He now has sixteen bikes to fix up and give away to children who

dont have bikes. 他现在有16辆要修理的自行车,并准备把这些修好的自行车赠送给那些没有自行车的孩子。

 Unit9

1. 被动语态 

(1). 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词所表示的动作承受者。

   (2). 被动语态基本结构:be+及物动词的过去分词

(如果是不用物动词,其过去分词应带有相应的介词)

   (3). 被动语态中的be 是助动词,有人称、数和时态的变化。

       一般现在时被动语态为:am/is/are+过去分词

       一般过去时被动语态为:was/were+ 过去分词

       与情态动词连用的被动语态:情态动词+ be + 过去分词

   (4). 被动语态中动作的发出者或执行者做介词by的宾语,放在句

末,by 表示“由,被”的意思

如何理解被动语态?

 为取胜更清晰、更深刻地理解被动语态的含义,可以将主动语态和被动语态的句子结构进行比较。

 主动语态: 主语+    谓语动词   +   宾语  + 其他成分

 


 

 被动语态: 主语+  be +过去分词 +  by +宾语   +其他成分

 如:      Many people    speak  English.

 


 

被动语态 English      is spoken   by many people.

2. 本单元要掌握的句型 见课本P69 中的Grammar Focus

3. invent v. 发明  inventor n. 发明家  invention n. 发明 可数名词

4. be used for doing用来做…(是被动语态) 如:

   Pens are used for writing. 笔是用来写的。

Pens aren’t used for eating. 笔不是用来吃的。

5. 给某人某样东西

give sth. to sb.   如:I gave a pen to him. 我给他一支笔。

   give sb. sth.        I gave him a pen. 我给他一支笔。

6. all day 整天

7. salty  adj. 咸的  salt  n.

8. by mistake 错误地 如:

  I took the umbrella by mistake. 我不小心拿错了雨伞。

9. make sb./sth. +形容词 使怎么样  It made me happy. 它使我高兴

  make sb./sth. +名词       It made me laugh. 它让我发笑

10. by accident 意外 偶然  I met her by accident at bus stop.

我在公共汽车站意外地见到了她。

11. not…until… 直到才做如:

I didn’t go to bed until I finished my work.     我直到完成我的工作才去睡觉。

12. according to +名词  根据如:    according to an legend

according to this article根据这篇文章      根据一个神话

13. over an open fire 野饮

14. leaf  n. 叶子  复数形式 leaves

15. nearby adj. 附近的  如: the nearby river

16. fall into 落入 掉进 如:The leaf fell into the river. 叶子落入了河里。fall down 摔倒  如:She fell down from her bike.

她从她自行车摔倒了。

17. quite 非常 adv.  与冠词a连用时,冠词a必须放在它的后面

             如:    quite a beautiful girl 一个漂亮的女孩

   very 非常 adv. 与冠词a连用时,冠词a必须放在它的前面

             如:    a very beautiful girl 一个漂亮女孩

    注:当不与冠词a 连用时,两者可以互用 如:

        I am very happy.=== I am quite happy. 我非常高兴。

18. in the way 这样

19. pleased adj. 表示外部因素引起人发自内心的欣慰和愉快

   pleasant adj. 愉快 高兴 指天气、时间、旅行令人高兴愉快

   please v. 使高兴 使同意

20. battery—operated  adj. 电池控制的是名词+动词的运动分词构成的合成形容词

21. in the sixth century 在第6世纪

22. travel around 周游

23. more than === over 超过 如:    more than 300 == over 300 超过300

24. including  prep. 介词  包括  可以与名词和动名词连用

   : Six people, including a baby, were hurt. 6个人包括一个小孩受伤了。

25. have been played 被上演   是现在完成时的被动语态

   现在完成时的被动语态的结构:have /has been +过去分词

26. be born 出生  He was born in Canada. 他在加拿大出生

27. safety n. 安全 safe adj. 安全的

28. knock into 撞上(某人)

29. divide sth. into … 划分成..

通常指将一个整体分成几个对应相对的部分 如:

Let’s divide ourselves into 4groups. 让我们把我们自己划成4组。

30. since then 自从那以后  常与完成时 态连用 如:

    Since then, I have left Beijing. 自从那以后,我已经离开了北京。

Unit10

1. 过去完成时

(1) 构成:由助动词had + 过去分词 构成

           否定式:had not + 过去分词   缩写形式:hadn’t

(2) 用法:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。

  (3) 它所表示的时间是“过去的过去”。

表示过去某一时间可用by, before 等构成的短语来表示

也可以用when, before, after 等引导的时间状语从句来表示

    还可以通过宾语从句或通过上下文暗示。

When I got there, you had already eaten you meal. 当我到达那里时,你已经开始了。

By the time he got here, the bus had left. 到他到达这里时,汽车已经离开了

2. by the time 直到时候 

指从过去某一点到从句所示的时间为止的一段时间  如:

By the time we got to his house, he had finished supper.

在我们到达他就已经吃完了晚饭。

3. 英语中表示“把某物遗忘在某处”常用 leave + 地点 ,而不是forget+地点 如:Unluckily, I left my book at home不幸的是,我把书忘在家里了。

4. close  v.    adv. 接近地 靠近地    closed  adj. 关的

5. come out 出来

6. on time 按时 准时 既不早也不迟  in time 及时 指在时限到来之前

7. luckily adv. 幸运地  lucky adj. 幸运的 luck n. 好运

8. give sb. a ride 让某搭便车  如:

   He often gives me a ride to school. 他经常让我搭便车去学校。

9.only just 刚刚好、恰好

10. go off  (闹钟)闹响  The alarm went off just now. 刚才警钟响了。

11. break down 坏掉

12. fool  n. 傻子 呆子  v. 愚弄 欺骗 如:   He is a fool. 他是一个呆子。

   We can’t fool our teach. 我们不能欺骗我们的教师。(动词)

13. show up 出现 出席 She didn’t show up last night. 昨晚她没有出现

14. invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某做事 如:

   My friend invited me to watch TV. 我的朋友邀请我看电视。

15. set off 激起 出发 set up 建立

16. so … that 如此以致于

引导结果状语从句,so后面接形容词、副词.

so that作“为了”时,引导目的状语从句,从句常出现情态动词,

            作结果状语从句时,从句中一般不用情态动词

如:She got up early so that she could catch the bus.

为了能赶上车,她起得很早。(目的状语从句)

      She was so sad that she couldn’t say a word.

她悲伤得一句话也说不出来。(结果状语从句)

17. flee from 逃跑 避开 如:They fled from their home.

他们从他们的家里逃了出来。

18. thrill v . 使人非常激动,使人非常紧张

   thrilled  adj. 指某人感到激动或感到紧张

   thrilling  adj. 指某事物使人心情激动

19. get married 结婚

20. convince v. 使信服  convincing adj. 令人信服的

21. land v. 着落

22. be late for 迟到

23. a piece of 一片// 如: a piece of paper/ bread 一张纸/ 一块面包

重点短语:

1.到…时候by the time +(句子)…从过去某一点到从句所示时间为止的一段时间,即从句用过去时,主句用过去完成时。

2.(闹钟)闹响go off

3.跑掉;迅速离开run off

4.损坏break down       (突然)中断break off

5.()愚人节(on) April Fool's Day

6.激起; set off

7.一片,一块a piece of

8.按时on time 及时in time

Section A

1.从…离开去…leave (from)for

  把某物遗忘在某地leave sth. +介宾短语(表地点的)

  忘记某人/某事forget sb /sth.

  忘记去作…forget to do

  忘记已作了…forget doing

2.在洗沐浴get in the shower

3.开始作…start/begin to do (前后不同的事)start/begin doing (前后相同的事)

4.我上学从未迟到,但昨天我差点迟到.I 've never been late for school ,but yesterday I came very close.

5.等待(某人)作…wait (for sb )to do

6.出来;开花come out 实现come ture 从旁而过come by 来自…come/be  from

7.我必须抓紧了.I had to really rush.

8.飞快冲了个 take/have a quick shower

9./让某人搭便车give/get  sb. a ride =give /get a ride to sb.

10.我恰好赶上上课.I only just made it to my class.(此时,"约定"之意)

SectionB

1.给某人穿衣服dress sb.

 穿()衣服 be /get dressed (in +衣服)

 化装;打扮dress up

2.熬夜stay /sit up (late)

3.给某人看某物show sb .sth.=show sth .to sb.

 带某人参观…show sb.around sth.

 卖弄…show off

 出席,露面show up

展览  be on show =be on display

4.化妆舞会a costume party

5.在地球着陆land on the earth

6.由演员奥森·威尔斯主 持的广播节目a radio program by actor Orsom Welles

7.遍及全国across the whole country =all over the whole country

8.从…逃跑;避开…flee from=run away from(flee过去式为fled )

9.将有…the re will be .(一般将来时)

  there would be (过去将来时)

10.买尽可能多的意大利面条buy as much spaghetti as they could /possible

11.让某人嫁过某人ask sb .to marry sb.

     结婚get married

    和…结婚 get /be married with =marry

12.停止作…stop doing         停下某事来作…stop to do

13.在开学 第一天on the first day of school

14.(向某人)打招呼say hello (to sb.)

15.醒来wake up         叫…醒来wake sb. up

16. 有一个很愉快的结局have a very happy ending

17.失去了他的女朋友和他的观众lose both his girlfriend and his show

Unit11

1.宾语从句     宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。

  由连接词+ 主语+ 谓语 构成

   常由下面的一些连接词引导:

  that 引导  表示陈述意义 that 可省略

     He says (that) he is at home. 他说他在家里。

  if , whether 引导  表示一般疑问意义(带有是否、已否、对否等)

      I don’t know if / whether Wei Hua likes fish. 我不知道韦华是否喜欢鱼。

  由连接代词、连接副词(疑问词) 引导  表示特殊疑问意义

      Do you know what he wants to buy?  你知道他想要买什么吗?

  从句时态要与主句一致

    当主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何时态

    He says (that ) he is at home. 他说他在家里。

    I don’t know (that) she is singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。

    She wants to know if I have finished my homework.

她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。

    Do you know when he will be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来?

当主句是一般过去时,从句应使用过去某时态

(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)

    He said (that) he was at home. 他说他在家里。

    I didn’t know that she was singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。

She wanted to know if I had finished m homework.

她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。

Did you know when he would be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来?

2. get  v.  得到、买、到达

3. make a telephone call 打电话

4. save money 省钱、存钱

5. 问路常用的句子:

     Do you know where …is ?

     Can you tell me how can I get to …?

Could you tell me how to get to …

Can/Could/Will/Would you please tell me sth. 表示十分客气地询问事情

 Could you tell me how to get to the park?

请你告诉我怎么才能去邮局好吗?中的how to get to the park

是疑问词与动词不定式连用,用作宾语,但不是宾语从句,可是

相当于how I can get to the park(宾语从句)如:

I don’t know how to solve the problem.  ==

 I don’t know how I can solve the problem.我不知道如何解决这个问题

 Can you tell me when to leave?  ==

 Can you tell me when I ill leave? 你能告诉我什么时候离开?

6. 日常交际用语:

  take the elevator / escalator to the … floor.乘电梯/自动扶梯到

  turn left / right === take a left / right  向左/ 右转

  go past 经过    go straight