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并列连词用法口诀-巧借并列连词破解非谓语动词陷阱题详细信息
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并列连词解非谓语动词陷阱题

一、借并列连词识别平行结构

根据英语语法习惯,用并列连词连接的两个语法成分通常应是平行的、对等的。若并列连词连接的是两个非谓语动词,原则上说它们应是同一形式——同为不定式,或同为-ing分词,或同为-ed分词。

二、借并列连词识别非谓语动词考点与并列句考点

有的考题从表面上看是在考查非谓语动词,而实际上是在考查并列句的有关知识,此时若能充分注意到句中的并列连词,同时结合并列连词对句子结构进行分析,问题往往可以迎刃而解。请看下面一道高考题:

_________ the website of the Fire Department in your city, and you will learn a lot about firefighting. (湖南卷)

A. Having searched         B. To search                C. Searching                     D. Search

此题初看一眼,完全像是一道非谓语动词考题,因为四个选项中有三项为非谓语动词。粗心的考生很可能会据此最先排除选项D,因为它不是非谓语动词。其实,此题的答案正是D。做好本题的关键是要注意到句中的并列连词and,由and可知这是一个并列句,and的后面是句子,其前面也应是句子。由于句首无主语,可推断它是祈使句,所以选动词原形,即答案为D

与上面的情况相反,如果两个“句子”间没有并列连词,那么其中有个“句子”就肯定不是“句子”,因为它没有完整的谓语。如下面这道高考题:

The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent _________ at the end of last March. (山东卷)

A. has been launched        B. having been launched    C. being launched       D. to be launched

由于两个“句子”间没有并列连词,所以空格处不可能填一个完整的谓语,据此我们可以最先排除选项A。又由于动作于去年的三月底就已经发生,所以不能选表示未来动作的不定式,即不能选D;又由于句子用了具体的过去时间状语(at the end of last March),故不能选完成式,即不能选B。所以答案为C。其实the most recent being launched at the end of last March为独立主格结构。

请再看下面一题:

The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _________ for the day. (重庆卷)

A. finishing                   B. finished                        C. had finished             D. were finished

由于两个“句子”间没有并列连词,所以空格处不可能填一个完整的谓语,据此我们可以最先排除选项CD。再根据句意,由于lessons与动词finish之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词,即选B。其实,their lessons finished for the day也是独立主格结构。

我们最后再来看两道题,这是两道很容易混淆的考题:

1. He wrote a lot of novels, none of them _________ into a foreign language.

A. translating          B. translated            C. were translated       D. had translated

2. He wrote a lot of novels, none of which _________ into a foreign language.

A. translating          B. translated             C. were translated       D. had translated

我们先来分析第1题,根据前面的思路我们可以推知,空格处不能填一个完整的谓语,因为这两个“句子”之间没有并列连词,所以可以排除CD;再根据“小说”与“翻译”之间的被动关系可以确定答案为B而不是A

我们再来看看第2题,其实这一题与第1题只有一个词的差别,那就是将第1题中的them改成了which。粗心的考生很可能会忽略这一差别,仍将答案确定为A。但事实上,由于将句中的them改成了which,就使得第2题的句子由简单句变成了复合句,因为none of which…在此引出一个定语从句;而定语从句作为“句子”,它就必须要有完整的谓语,同时结合“小说”与“翻译”之间的被动关系,我们可以确定此题的答案为C而不是B

并列连词的用法

A conjunction is a word that grammatically connects two words, phrases, or clauses together. The most common examples are words like ‘and’ and ‘but’.

连词在语法上连接两个词,短语或者句子。最常见的连词是‘and’‘but’

For example, ‘I took the subway, and got off at 96th Street.’ Or, ‘I took the subway, but there was a delay.’ However, conjunctions can come in many forms with many different functions.

例如,我上了地铁,然后在第96大街下车了或者我乘地铁了,但是我还是耽搁了。然而,连词有多种形式,自然也有不同的作用。

They’re a part of speech that can be broken down into several categories, and we’ll explore each one in depth with examples.

连词是一种词性,可以被分成好多种类,我们将附以例子来深入探讨每一种。

Conjunctions can primarily be broken down into three categories:

连词主要可以分成三种:

Coordinating conjunctions

并列连词

Correlative conjunctions

关联连词

Subordinating conjunctions

从属连词

Coordinating conjunctions always come between two clauses in order to connect them. These are two ideas that are related and can therefore be placed into one longer sentence.

并列连词位于两个从句中间,用来连接两个句子。并列连词连接的是两种意义相近的想法,有了并列连词的连接,两个短句就可以被合写成一个较长的句子。

A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction like “and” and “but.” It joins together words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically equal. The seven coordinating conjunctions are:

并列连词就是像and或者but这样的连词,它连接在语法上对等的单词,短语和从句。以下是七个并列连词。

For

因为

And

Nor

也不

But

但是

Or

或者

Yet

然而

So

因此

The seven coordinating conjunctions can be remembered using the acronym: FANBOYS

这七个并列连词可以用首字母缩写的方式来记忆,即FANBOYS

For

因为

For shows reason or purpose (sometimes because can be used instead)

For表示原因或者是目的(有时候可以用instead来代替它)

I go to the library, for I love to read.

因为我喜欢阅读,所以我去图书馆。

While the word “so” introduces the “effect” part of a cause-and-effect relationship, the word “for” introduces the cause.

在因果关系里,‘so’引出来的是结果,‘for’引出来的是原因。

My husband and I went to Costa Rica, for it was our five-year anniversary.

我和我的丈夫去了哥斯达黎加,因为大师我们结婚五周年纪念。

Using the word “for” like this, however, can sound a bit formal and unnatural in spoken English. Instead, it’s better to use subordinating conjunctions like “because” or “since,” which we’ll discuss later. Meanwhile, the word “for” can take different usages as a preposition, not a conjunction. For example:

在英语口语中这样使用‘for’听起来有点正式甚至不自然。相反,使用从属连词‘because’或者‘since’可能会好一点,这一点后期我们会进行讨论。同时‘for’这个词作为介词用法完全不一样。例如:

What are you doing for New Year’s?

你新年打算做什么?

And

And connects two or more ideas.

And 连接两个或者两个以上的想法。

I like to eat cookies, and I like to drink milk.

我喜欢吃饼干,我喜欢喝牛奶。

The conjunction “and” is used to join two or more items that make sense with each other.

连词‘and’用来连接两个或者多个成分,这些成分只有放在一起才有意义。

I put mayonnaise and mustard in this sandwich.

我把蛋黄酱和芥末放到三明治里。

It can also be used to connect a series of events.

它还可以用来连接一系列事件。

Everyday after school, I go to the library and study.

放学后的每一天我都去读书馆学习。

If you want to list several items, use commas and the word “and” at the very end.

如果你想列出多项,就可以使用逗号然后用单词and进行最后的连接。

I wasted so much time, energy, and money on that trip.

那次旅行,我浪费了很多时间,精力和金钱。

Nor

也不

Nor shows a non-contrasting, negative idea.

Nor表示非对比的,否定的想法。

I refuse to hug to people I don’t know, nor will I kiss them.

我拒绝拥抱我不认识的人,当然我也不会亲吻他们。

While “and” is used to join two positive items together, the conjunction “nor” is used to pair two negative items. It’s found either with the word “not” or with the word “neither.”

‘And’用来连接肯定的成分,‘nor’用来连接否定的成分。‘Nor’或者与‘not’连用,或者与‘neither’连用。

He didn’t return my calls, nor did he respond to any of my texts.

他没有回复我的电话,也没有回复我的任何消息。

Neither the yoga nor the running made my back feel any better.

瑜伽和跑步都无法使我的背部感觉好起来。

But

但是

But shows contrast or exception.

‘But’表示对比或者意外。

Sheila likes soup, but sometimes she orders something different.

希拉喜欢喝汤,但是有时候他也会点别的。

The conjunction “but” is used to join two items that contradict each other.

连词‘but’用来连接互相矛盾的两项。

The dress was beautiful but slightly expensive.

这件连衣裙很漂亮但是稍微有一点贵。

A common usage of the word “but” is in the construction “not…but.” You can also use the word “rather” to emphasize the contrast in the statement.

‘But’一个常见的用法就是与not连用,即‘not…but’。也可以在陈述句中使用‘rather’来强调对比。

It wasn’t a bird but a squirrel that’s been ravaging the garden.

这不是一只鸟,而是毁坏花园的松鼠。

Or

或者

Or shows choice or option.

Or表示一种选择。

He could go to the bar, or he could go to work.

他可以去酒吧,也可以去工作。

The conjunction “or” can be used to present two or more options. It’s often paired with the word “either.”

连词‘or’可以用来表示两种或者更多的选择。‘Or’常常与单词‘either’连用。

He’s either flirting with me or just acts unusually nice to me.

他可能是跟我调情,也可能就是对我很好。

Yet

然而

Yet also shows contrast or exception.

Yet表示一种对比或者一种例外。

He had been crying all day, yet the man made him laugh.

他哭了一整天,然而那个人却使他发笑。

The conjunction “yet” is very similar to “but.”

连词‘yet’‘but’很像。

The sauce was sweet yet had a spicy flavor to it.

酱汁很甜,然而它也有一种辛辣的味道。

Don’t get this conjunction mixed up with the other usage of the word “yet.” For example:

不要把这个连词‘yet’和单词‘yet’的用法弄混。例如:

Did she call you back yet?

她给你回电话了嘛?

So

因此

So shows consequence.

So表示结果。

The lady was feeling ill, so she went home to bed.

那个女士病了,所以她回家睡觉了。

If you want to express a cause-and-effect relationship, you can use the conjunction “so.” It introduces a clause that is the effect of a previous clause.

如果你想表达因果关系,你可以使用连词soSo引导一个从句,这个从句是前一个从句的结果。

It was the week before Christmas, so the mall was unusually hectic.

这是圣诞节前一个周末,所以购物中心出奇的挤。

Notice that the word “so” can be used to justify a suggestion or command. It can also be used to explain the basis of a question. For example:

注意‘so’这个词可以用来证明一个建议或者是命令。它也可以用来解释问题的基础。

All the bars are closed by now, so what do you want to do instead?

所有的酒吧都关门了,你打算怎么办。

Another usage of the conjunction “so” is to introduce a new idea or change the subject, whether this has a cause-and-effect relationship or not. For example:

连词‘so’的另一个用法就是不管有没有因果关系,它可以用来引进一个新的概念或者改变主题。

So, what do you want to talk about now?

那么,你现在想谈点什么呢?

Be careful not to mix up the coordinating conjunction “so” with other usages of the word “so.” For example:

要注意不要把并列连词‘so’的用法跟单词‘so’的用法混淆。例如:

 “Is it going to be warmer tomorrow?” “I think so.”

明天会暖和一点吗?”“我想应该会。

I hid the presents so that the rest of my family wouldn’t find them.

我把礼物藏了起来,这样我的家人就找不到它们了。

 

 

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并列连词用法口诀-巧借并列连词破解非谓语动词陷阱题
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